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Open AccessFeature PaperReview

Energy Restriction and Colorectal Cancer: A Call for Additional Research

1
Nutritional Interventions Group, Precision Nutrition and Aging Program, Institute IMDEA Food (CEI UAM+CSIC), Crta. de Canto Blanco nº 8, E-28049 Madrid, Spain
2
Bioactive Products and Metabolic Syndrome Group-BIOPROMET, Precision Nutrition and Aging Program, Institute IMDEA Food (CEI UAM+CSIC), Crta. de Canto Blanco nº 8, E-28049 Madrid, Spain
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Molecular Oncology and Nutritional Genomics of Cancer Group, Precision Nutrition and Cancer Program, Institute IMDEA Food (CEI, UAM/CSIC), Crta. de Canto Blanco nº 8, E-28049 Madrid, Spain
4
Translational Gerontology Branch, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, 251 Bayview Boulevard, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(1), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010114
Received: 7 December 2019 / Revised: 26 December 2019 / Accepted: 27 December 2019 / Published: 1 January 2020
Colorectal cancer has the second highest cancer-related mortality rate, with an estimated 881,000 deaths worldwide in 2018. The urgent need to reduce the incidence and mortality rate requires innovative strategies to improve prevention, early diagnosis, prognostic biomarkers, and treatment effectiveness. Caloric restriction (CR) is known as the most robust nutritional intervention that extends lifespan and delays the progression of age-related diseases, with remarkable results for cancer protection. Other forms of energy restriction, such as periodic fasting, intermittent fasting, or fasting-mimicking diets, with or without reduction of total calorie intake, recapitulate the effects of chronic CR and confer a wide range of beneficial effects towards health and survival, including anti-cancer properties. In this review, the known molecular, cellular, and organismal effects of energy restriction in oncology will be discussed. Energy-restriction-based strategies implemented in colorectal models and clinical trials will be also revised. While energy restriction constitutes a promising intervention for the prevention and treatment of several malignant neoplasms, further investigations are essential to dissect the interplay between fundamental aspects of energy intake, such as feeding patterns, fasting length, or diet composition, with all of them influencing health and disease or cancer effects. Currently, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of different forms of fasting to fight cancer, particularly colorectal cancer, should still be contemplated with caution. View Full-Text
Keywords: energy restriction; colorectal cancer models; metabolism energy restriction; colorectal cancer models; metabolism
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MDPI and ACS Style

Castejón, M.; Plaza, A.; Martinez-Romero, J.; Fernandez-Marcos, P.J.; de Cabo, R.; Diaz-Ruiz, A. Energy Restriction and Colorectal Cancer: A Call for Additional Research. Nutrients 2020, 12, 114. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010114

AMA Style

Castejón M, Plaza A, Martinez-Romero J, Fernandez-Marcos PJ, de Cabo R, Diaz-Ruiz A. Energy Restriction and Colorectal Cancer: A Call for Additional Research. Nutrients. 2020; 12(1):114. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010114

Chicago/Turabian Style

Castejón, Maria; Plaza, Adrian; Martinez-Romero, Jorge; Fernandez-Marcos, Pablo J.; de Cabo, Rafael; Diaz-Ruiz, Alberto. 2020. "Energy Restriction and Colorectal Cancer: A Call for Additional Research" Nutrients 12, no. 1: 114. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010114

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