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Open AccessArticle

The Validity of Children’s Fruit and Vegetable Intake Using Plasma Vitamins A, C, and E: The SAYCARE Study

1
YCARE (Youth/Child cArdiovascular Risk and Environmental) Research Group, Department of Preventive Medicine, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo 01246-903, Brazil
2
Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo 01246-904, Brazil
3
Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Isabel I, 09001 Burgos, Spain
4
Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo 1246-904, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1815; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081815
Received: 11 June 2019 / Revised: 30 July 2019 / Accepted: 2 August 2019 / Published: 6 August 2019
Despite that fruits and vegetables are key elements for health promotion, there are limited studies validating their intake in children. We aimed to validate the SAYCARE (South American Youth/Child Cardiovascular and Environmental) Study Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and the combination of the FFQ frequency of intake with the 24 h-dietary-recall (24 h-DR) (mean of 3 days), for children’s fruit and vegetable intake. The reference methods were plasma dosages of β-carotene, retinol, ascorbic acid, and α-tocopherol, which were collected in the school environment. It is a validity study in a subsample of 45 children aged 6–10 years participating in the SAYCARE Study, from São Paulo (Brazil). The FFQ was answered by the parents/guardians over the previous 3 months; the 24 h-DR was answered three times (two weekdays by nutritionists, one weekend day by parents/guardians). The mean fruit and vegetable intake (combined with frequency of intake) was calculated using the multiple source method (MSM). Multiple linear regression showed pooled correlation coefficients of 0.29 to 0.35 for the reported fruit and vegetable intake estimated by the FFQ and the MSM, respectively. The SAYCARE FFQ is an accurate and useful tool for ranking fruit and vegetable intake in children between 6–10 years from the SAYCARE Study. View Full-Text
Keywords: children; fruits and vegetables; biomarkers; vitamins; validity; food frequency questionnaire; 24-h-Dietary-Recall; Multiple Source Method children; fruits and vegetables; biomarkers; vitamins; validity; food frequency questionnaire; 24-h-Dietary-Recall; Multiple Source Method
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Collese, T.S.; De Moraes, A.C.F.; Rendo-Urteaga, T.; Luzia, L.A.; Rondó, P.H.C.; Marchioni, D.M.L.; Carvalho, H.B. The Validity of Children’s Fruit and Vegetable Intake Using Plasma Vitamins A, C, and E: The SAYCARE Study. Nutrients 2019, 11, 1815.

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  • Supplementary File 1:

    ZIP-Document (ZIP, 397 KB)

  • Externally hosted supplementary file 1
    Doi: 10.5281/zenodo.3243543
    Link: https://zenodo.org/deposit/3243543#
    Description: Figure S1: Fruits and vegetables intake distribution calculated by the Multiple Source Method (the combination of 3 days of 24-hour dietary recall with the frequency of intake) in children (6-10 years).
  • Externally hosted supplementary file 2
    Doi: 10.5281/zenodo.3243543
    Link: https://zenodo.org/deposit/3243543#
    Description: List S2: Different types of fruits and vegetables reported at the 24-hour dietary recall.
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