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Review

Cow’s Milk Substitutes for Children: Nutritional Aspects of Milk from Different Mammalian Species, Special Formula and Plant-Based Beverages

1
Department of Pediatrics, San Paolo Hospital, 20142 Milan, Italy
2
Department of Health Science, University of Milan, 20142 Milan, Italy
3
Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Section of Paediatrics, University of Pisa, 56126 Pisa, Italy
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Department of Clinical Immunology and Allergology, I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, 119991 Moscow, Russia
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Department of Pediatrics, S. Camillo-Forlanini Hospital, 00152 Rome, Italy
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Department of Pediatrics, Garbagnate Milanese, 20024 Milan, Italy
7
National Pediatric Health Care System, 10135 Turin, Italy
8
Allergy &Immunology Unit, University of Cape Town Lung Institute, 7700 Cape Town, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1739; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081739
Received: 26 June 2019 / Revised: 20 July 2019 / Accepted: 23 July 2019 / Published: 27 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Diet, and Allergic Diseases)
Cow’s milk and dairy are commonly consumed foods in the human diet and contribute to maintaining a healthy nutritional state, providing unique sources of energy, calcium, protein, and vitamins, especially during early childhood. Milk formula is usually made from cow’s milk and represents the first food introduced into an infant’s diet when breastfeeding is either not possible or insufficient to cover nutritional needs. Very recently, increased awareness of cow’s milk protein allergy and intolerance, and higher preference to vegan dietary habits have influenced parents towards frequently choosing cows’ milk substitutes for children, comprising other mammalian milk types and plant-based milk beverages. However, many of these milk alternatives do not necessarily address the nutritional requirements of infants and children. There is a strong need to promote awareness about qualitative and quantitative nutritional compositions of different milk formulas, in order to guide parents and medical providers selecting the best option for children. In this article, we sought to review the different compositions in terms of macronutrients and micronutrients of milk from different mammalian species, including special milk formulas indicated for cow’s milk allergy, and of plant-based milk alternatives. View Full-Text
Keywords: allergy; children; cow’s milk allergy; goat’s milk; non-dairy milk; plant-based beverages; plant-based milk; milk formula; nutrition allergy; children; cow’s milk allergy; goat’s milk; non-dairy milk; plant-based beverages; plant-based milk; milk formula; nutrition
MDPI and ACS Style

Verduci, E.; D’Elios, S.; Cerrato, L.; Comberiati, P.; Calvani, M.; Palazzo, S.; Martelli, A.; Landi, M.; Trikamjee, T.; Peroni, D.G. Cow’s Milk Substitutes for Children: Nutritional Aspects of Milk from Different Mammalian Species, Special Formula and Plant-Based Beverages. Nutrients 2019, 11, 1739. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081739

AMA Style

Verduci E, D’Elios S, Cerrato L, Comberiati P, Calvani M, Palazzo S, Martelli A, Landi M, Trikamjee T, Peroni DG. Cow’s Milk Substitutes for Children: Nutritional Aspects of Milk from Different Mammalian Species, Special Formula and Plant-Based Beverages. Nutrients. 2019; 11(8):1739. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081739

Chicago/Turabian Style

Verduci, Elvira, Sofia D’Elios, Lucia Cerrato, Pasquale Comberiati, Mauro Calvani, Samuele Palazzo, Alberto Martelli, Massimo Landi, Thulja Trikamjee, and Diego G Peroni. 2019. "Cow’s Milk Substitutes for Children: Nutritional Aspects of Milk from Different Mammalian Species, Special Formula and Plant-Based Beverages" Nutrients 11, no. 8: 1739. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081739

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