Next Article in Journal
The Effect of Nutrition Intervention with Oral Nutritional Supplements on Pancreatic and Bile Duct Cancer Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy
Previous Article in Journal
Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Ecklonia cava Extract on Porphyromonas gingivalis Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Macrophages and a Periodontitis Rat Model
Open AccessArticle

Effects of Euglena gracilis EOD-1 Ingestion on Salivary IgA Reactivity and Health-Related Quality of Life in Humans

Laboratory for Immunopharmacology of Microbial Products, School of Pharmacy, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392, Japan
Kobelco Eco-Solutions Co., Ltd., Kobe, Hyogo 651-2241, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1144;
Received: 29 March 2019 / Revised: 18 May 2019 / Accepted: 20 May 2019 / Published: 22 May 2019
Euglena gracilis EOD-1, a microalgal strain known for high yields of the β-1, 3-glucan paramylon, is suggested to function as a dietary fiber and enhance immunity. Here, we aimed to investigate the effects of E. gracilis EOD-1 biomass (EOD1BM) ingestion on immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibody titers in saliva, its reactivity, and the health-related quality of life (QOL) in humans. Reacting human immunoglobulin preparations and saliva with paramylon granules revealed the presence of anti-paramylon antibodies in the blood and saliva. We conducted a placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study involving 13 healthy subjects who ingested the placebo or EOD1BM for 4 weeks. Saliva was collected from each subject before and after ingestion, and IgA titers and E. gracilis EOD-1 paramylon (EOD1PM) reactivity were compared. In the EOD1BM Ingestion group, the anti-EOD1PM IgA content and titer increased after EOD1BM ingestion. No such change was observed in the Placebo group. Furthermore, the health-related QOL, especially mental health, increased in the EOD1BM Ingestion group. Thus, EOD1BM ingestion led to the production of paramylon (PM)-specific IgA antibody and increased salivary IgA antibody titers. We demonstrate that EOD1BM ingestion enhanced the immunity in the mucosal surface, evoked an antigen-specific response, and increased the health-related QOL, thereby contributing to health improvement. View Full-Text
Keywords: paramylon; β-1, 3-glucan; antibody; IgA; QOL paramylon; β-1, 3-glucan; antibody; IgA; QOL
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Ishibashi, K.-I.; Nishioka, M.; Onaka, N.; Takahashi, M.; Yamanaka, D.; Adachi, Y.; Ohno, N. Effects of Euglena gracilis EOD-1 Ingestion on Salivary IgA Reactivity and Health-Related Quality of Life in Humans. Nutrients 2019, 11, 1144.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Search more from Scilit
Back to TopTop