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Open AccessArticle

Gamma-oryzanol Prevents LPS-induced Brain Inflammation and Cognitive Impairment in Adult Mice

Department of Molecular and Translational Medicine, University of Brescia, 25123 Brescia, Italy
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 728; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040728
Received: 13 February 2019 / Revised: 19 March 2019 / Accepted: 26 March 2019 / Published: 29 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Food, Nutrition and Human Health)
Background: Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is the main food source for more than half of humankind. Rice is rich in phytochemicals and antioxidants with several biological activities; among these compounds, the presence of γ-oryzanol is noteworthy. The present study aims to explore the effects of γ-oryzanol on cognitive performance in a mouse model of neuroinflammation and cognitive alterations. Methods: Mice received 100 mg/kg γ-oryzanol (ORY) or vehicle once daily for 21 consecutive days and were then exposed to an inflammatory stimulus elicited by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). A novel object recognition test and mRNA expression of antioxidant and neuroinflammatory markers in the hippocampus were evaluated. Results: ORY treatment was able to improve cognitive performance during the neuroinflammatory response. Furthermore, phase II antioxidant enzymes such as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and NADPH-dehydrogenase-quinone-1 (NQO1) were upregulated in the hippocampi of ORY and ORY+LPS mice. Lastly, γ-oryzanol showed a strong anti-inflammatory action by downregulating inflammatory genes after LPS treatment. Conclusion: These results suggest that chronic consumption of γ-oryzanol can revert the LPS-induced cognitive and memory impairments by promoting hippocampal antioxidant and anti-inflammatory molecular responses. View Full-Text
Keywords: γ-oryzanol; cognitive performance; neuroinflammation; second-generation antioxidant enzymes γ-oryzanol; cognitive performance; neuroinflammation; second-generation antioxidant enzymes
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mastinu, A.; Bonini, S.A.; Rungratanawanich, W.; Aria, F.; Marziano, M.; Maccarinelli, G.; Abate, G.; Premoli, M.; Memo, M.; Uberti, D. Gamma-oryzanol Prevents LPS-induced Brain Inflammation and Cognitive Impairment in Adult Mice. Nutrients 2019, 11, 728. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040728

AMA Style

Mastinu A, Bonini SA, Rungratanawanich W, Aria F, Marziano M, Maccarinelli G, Abate G, Premoli M, Memo M, Uberti D. Gamma-oryzanol Prevents LPS-induced Brain Inflammation and Cognitive Impairment in Adult Mice. Nutrients. 2019; 11(4):728. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040728

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mastinu, Andrea; Bonini, Sara A.; Rungratanawanich, Wiramon; Aria, Francesca; Marziano, Mariagrazia; Maccarinelli, Giuseppina; Abate, Giulia; Premoli, Marika; Memo, Maurizio; Uberti, Daniela. 2019. "Gamma-oryzanol Prevents LPS-induced Brain Inflammation and Cognitive Impairment in Adult Mice" Nutrients 11, no. 4: 728. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040728

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