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Regular Intake of a Usual Serving Size of Flavanol-Rich Cocoa Powder Does Not Affect Cardiometabolic Parameters in Stably Treated Patients with Type 2 Diabetes and Hypertension—A Double-Blinded, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial
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Impact of a Usual Serving Size of Flavanol-Rich Cocoa Powder Ingested with a Diabetic-Suitable Meal on Postprandial Cardiometabolic Parameters in Type 2 Diabetics—A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Crossover Study

1
Faculty of Food, Nutrition and Hospitality Sciences, Hochschule Niederrhein, University of Applied Sciences, Rheydter Str. 277, 41065 Mönchengladbach, Germany
2
Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences, University of Bonn, Endenicher Allee 11-13, 53115 Bonn, Germany
3
Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Pharmacology, University Hospital Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str. 25, 53127 Bonn, Germany
4
Praxis Anrath, Pastoratstr. 9-11, 47877 Willich, Germany
5
Institute of Numerical Simulation, University of Bonn, Endenicher Allee 60, 53115 Bonn, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 417; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020417
Received: 12 January 2019 / Revised: 6 February 2019 / Accepted: 7 February 2019 / Published: 16 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cocoa, Chocolate and Human Health)
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Abstract

Randomized controlled trials indicate that flavanol-rich cocoa intake may improve postprandial glucose and lipid metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), based on studies with meals that impose a strong metabolic load. Hence, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether flavanol-rich cocoa powder ingested as part of a diabetic-suitable meal may beneficially affect glucose, lipid metabolism, and blood pressure (BP) in patients with T2D. Twelve adults with T2D, overweight/obesity, and hypertension ingested capsules with 2.5 g of flavanol-rich cocoa or microcrystalline cellulose with a diabetic-suitable breakfast in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover study. BP was measured and blood samples were taken before, 2 and 4 h after breakfast and capsule intake. Cocoa treatment did not affect glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), triglycerides, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and BP. For glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR, only effects by time were observed after both treatments. Thus, 2.5 g of flavanol-rich cocoa powder ingested as part of a diabetic-suitable meal does not seem to affect postprandial glucose and lipid metabolism and BP in stably-treated diabetics. Nevertheless, future studies with close-meshed investigations are desirable, providing realistic amounts of cocoa together with realistic meals rich in carbohydrates to subjects with T2D or metabolic syndrome, which do not afford pharmacological treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: type 2 diabetes; flavanol-rich cocoa; postprandial; meal; glucose metabolism; lipids; blood pressure type 2 diabetes; flavanol-rich cocoa; postprandial; meal; glucose metabolism; lipids; blood pressure
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Rynarzewski, J.; Dicks, L.; Zimmermann, B.F.; Stoffel-Wagner, B.; Ludwig, N.; Helfrich, H.-P.; Ellinger, S. Impact of a Usual Serving Size of Flavanol-Rich Cocoa Powder Ingested with a Diabetic-Suitable Meal on Postprandial Cardiometabolic Parameters in Type 2 Diabetics—A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Crossover Study. Nutrients 2019, 11, 417.

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