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Gut Mucosal Proteins and Bacteriome Are Shaped by the Saturation Index of Dietary Lipids

1
Department of Biology, IKBSAS, University of British Columbia, Okanagan campus, Kelowna V1V 1V7, Canada
2
Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver V6T 1Z3, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally.
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 418; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020418
Received: 11 January 2019 / Revised: 1 February 2019 / Accepted: 13 February 2019 / Published: 16 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet as Means for studying gut-related Inflammation)
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Abstract

The dynamics of the tripartite relationship between the host, gut bacteria and diet in the gut is relatively unknown. An imbalance between harmful and protective gut bacteria, termed dysbiosis, has been linked to many diseases and has most often been attributed to high-fat dietary intake. However, we recently clarified that the type of fat, not calories, were important in the development of murine colitis. To further understand the host-microbe dynamic in response to dietary lipids, we fed mice isocaloric high-fat diets containing either milk fat, corn oil or olive oil and performed 16S rRNA gene sequencing of the colon microbiome and mass spectrometry-based relative quantification of the colonic metaproteome. The corn oil diet, rich in omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, increased the potential for pathobiont survival and invasion in an inflamed, oxidized and damaged gut while saturated fatty acids promoted compensatory inflammatory responses involved in tissue healing. We conclude that various lipids uniquely alter the host-microbe interaction in the gut. While high-fat consumption has a distinct impact on the gut microbiota, the type of fatty acids alters the relative microbial abundances and predicted functions. These results support that the type of fat are key to understanding the biological effects of high-fat diets on gut health. View Full-Text
Keywords: Host-microbe interactions; gut microbiome; dietary lipids; polyunsaturated fatty acids; monounsaturated fatty acids; saturated fatty acids; proteome; 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing; short-chain fatty acid metabolism Host-microbe interactions; gut microbiome; dietary lipids; polyunsaturated fatty acids; monounsaturated fatty acids; saturated fatty acids; proteome; 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing; short-chain fatty acid metabolism
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Abulizi, N.; Quin, C.; Brown, K.; Chan, Y.K.; Gill, S.K.; Gibson, D.L. Gut Mucosal Proteins and Bacteriome Are Shaped by the Saturation Index of Dietary Lipids. Nutrients 2019, 11, 418.

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