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Open AccessArticle

Plant-Based Diet, Cholesterol, and Risk of Gallstone Disease: A Prospective Study

1
Department of General Surgery, Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital, Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical Foundation, Hualien 970, Taiwan
2
College of Medicine, Tzu Chi University, Hualien 970, Taiwan
3
Department of Nutritional Science, Fu-Jen Catholic University, Taipei 242, Taiwan
4
Department of Nutrition Therapy, Dalin Tzu Chi Hospital, Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical Foundation, Chiayi 622, Taiwan
5
Department of Medical Research, Dalin Tzu Chi Hospital, Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical Foundation, Chiayi 622, Taiwan
6
Department of Family Medicine, Dalin Tzu Chi Hospital, Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical Foundation, Chiayi 622, Taiwan
7
Department of Family Medicine, College of Medicine, Tzu Chi University, Hualien 970, Taiwan
8
Department of Cardiology, Dalin Tzu Chi Hospital, Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical Foundation, Chiayi 622, Taiwan
9
Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Tzu Chi University, Hualien 970, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 335; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020335
Received: 14 January 2019 / Revised: 28 January 2019 / Accepted: 29 January 2019 / Published: 4 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vegan Nutrition)
Vegetarian diets may lower symptomatic gallstone disease via cholesterol lowering. This study aimed to examine the risk of symptomatic gallstone disease (GSD) in Taiwanese vegetarians vs. nonvegetarians in a prospective cohort and to explore if this association is related to cholesterol concentration. We prospectively followed 4839 participants, and in the 29,295 person-years of follow-up, 104 new incident GSD cases were confirmed. Diet was assessed through a validated food frequency questionnaire. Symptomatic GSD was ascertained through linkage to the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Blood cholesterol profiles were measured at recruitment. Cox regression was applied to assess the effect of diet on symptomatic GSD, adjusting for age, education, smoking, alcohol, physical activities, diabetes, kidney diseases, body mass index, lipid-lowering medication, and hypercholesterolemia. Vegetarian diet was associated with a decreased risk of symptomatic GSD compared with nonvegetarian diet in women (hazard ratio [HR], 0.52; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.28–0.96) but not in men. In women, nonvegetarians with hypercholesterolemia had 3.8 times the risk of GSD compared with vegetarians with normal cholesterol (HR, 3.81, 95% CI, 1.61–9.01). A vegetarian diet may therefore protect against GSD independent of baseline hypercholesterolemia. A nonvegetarian diet and hypercholesterolemia may have an additive effect in increasing GSD risk in women. View Full-Text
Keywords: vegetarian diet; gallstone disease; cholesterol; prospective cohort vegetarian diet; gallstone disease; cholesterol; prospective cohort
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MDPI and ACS Style

Chang, C.-M.; Chiu, T.H.T.; Chang, C.-C.; Lin, M.-N.; Lin, C.-L. Plant-Based Diet, Cholesterol, and Risk of Gallstone Disease: A Prospective Study. Nutrients 2019, 11, 335. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020335

AMA Style

Chang C-M, Chiu THT, Chang C-C, Lin M-N, Lin C-L. Plant-Based Diet, Cholesterol, and Risk of Gallstone Disease: A Prospective Study. Nutrients. 2019; 11(2):335. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020335

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chang, Chun-Ming; Chiu, Tina H.T.; Chang, Chia-Chen; Lin, Ming-Nan; Lin, Chin-Lon. 2019. "Plant-Based Diet, Cholesterol, and Risk of Gallstone Disease: A Prospective Study" Nutrients 11, no. 2: 335. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020335

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