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Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 259; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020259

The Association between Breastmilk Glucocorticoid Concentrations and Macronutrient Contents Throughout the Day

1
Room ZH 9 D 36, Department of Pediatrics, Emma Children’s Hospital, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, P.O. Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam, The Netherlands
2
Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Sophia Children’s Hospital, Erasmus MC, P.O. Box 2060, 3000 CA Rotterdam, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Both authors contributed equally.
Received: 14 December 2018 / Revised: 11 January 2019 / Accepted: 16 January 2019 / Published: 24 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Steroid Hormones and Human Health)
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Abstract

Background: Glucocorticoids (GCs) in breastmilk follow the maternal hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal axis activity and may affect the offspring’s growth and neurodevelopment. There is some evidence suggesting that macronutrients in breastmilk also fluctuate throughout the day. We aimed to research whether GCs and macronutrients are correlated in multiple breastmilk samples obtained over a 24-h period. Methods: A total of 10 mothers provided 45 breastmilk samples collected over a 24-h period. Cortisol and cortisone levels were determined by LC–MS/MS, and macronutrients were measured with mid-infrared spectroscopy. Correlations between breastmilk GCs and macronutrients were assessed with Pearson correlations and linear mixed models. Results: No associations were found between breastmilk GCs and macronutrients (cortisol: β-0.1 (95% confidence interval: −1.0 to 0.7), −4.9 (−12.9 to 3.1) for fat, protein, and carbohydrates, respectively; and −0.3 (−5.6 to 5.0) and cortisone: 0.0 (−2.5 to 2.5), −17.4 (−39.8 to 5.0), and −2.7 (−17.7 to 12.3)) for fat, protein, and carbohydrates, respectively. Adjusting for the time of collection to account for GC rhythmicity did not change the results. Conclusion: We found no associations between GCs and macronutrients in human breastmilk. The excretion of GCs in breastmilk and the effects of breastmilk GCs on offspring are, therefore, likely independent of the excretion and effects of the macronutrients. View Full-Text
Keywords: glucocorticoids; cortisol; cortisone; macronutrients; human milk; diurnal rhythm; circadian rhythm; fat; carbohydrates; protein glucocorticoids; cortisol; cortisone; macronutrients; human milk; diurnal rhythm; circadian rhythm; fat; carbohydrates; protein
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Hollanders, J.J.; Kouwenhoven, S.M.P.; van der Voorn, B.; van Goudoever, J.B.; Rotteveel, J.; Finken, M.J.J. The Association between Breastmilk Glucocorticoid Concentrations and Macronutrient Contents Throughout the Day. Nutrients 2019, 11, 259.

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