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Open AccessArticle

Mealtime Anxiety and Coping Behaviour in Parents and Children during Weaning in PKU: A Case-Control Study

1
Dietetic Department, Birmingham Women’s and Children’s Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham B4 6NH, UK
2
Dietetic Department, Bradford Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Bradford BD9 6RJ, UK
3
Dietetic Department, Royal Hospital for Children Glasgow, Glasgow G51 4TF, UK
4
Psychology Department, Birmingham Women’s and Children’s Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham B4 6NH, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(12), 2857; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11122857
Received: 1 November 2019 / Revised: 15 November 2019 / Accepted: 18 November 2019 / Published: 21 November 2019
Solid food introduction may create anxiety for parents of children with phenylketonuria (PKU) due to the burden associated with protein substitute (PS) administration and natural protein restriction. In a longitudinal, prospective study, 20 mothers of children with PKU and 20 non-PKU control mothers completed 4 questionnaires (mealtime emotions, feed-time, Beck’s anxiety inventory and the coping health inventory for parents), examining parent/child mealtime emotions, anxiety, stress and coping strategies at child ages: weaning start, 8 months (m), 12 m, 15 m, 18 m and 24 m. Overall, mothers of children with PKU cope well with solid food introduction when applying a low-phenylalanine diet, with comparable low levels of stress and anxiety reported in both PKU and non-PKU groups. However, mothers of children with PKU reported peak scores in anxiety for emotive/cognitive symptoms at a child age of 15 m, and higher use of coping strategies at 15 m and 24 m (p < 0.05) of age. Generally, there was a trend that maternal anxiety regarding child rejection of PS increased with time, peaking between 12–24 m. In PKU, a child age of 12–18 m is identified as a key period when mothers feel most anxious/stressed with feeding, coinciding with raised blood phenylalanine levels probably associated with teething, illness and developing independence. Health professionals should be conscious of this vulnerable period and be prepared to offer more directional support as required. View Full-Text
Keywords: Phenylketonuria (PKU); weaning; mothers; anxiety; stress; coping; Child Health Inventory for Parents (CHIP); Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) Phenylketonuria (PKU); weaning; mothers; anxiety; stress; coping; Child Health Inventory for Parents (CHIP); Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Evans, S.; Daly, A.; Wildgoose, J.; Cochrane, B.; Ashmore, C.; Kearney, S.; MacDonald, A. Mealtime Anxiety and Coping Behaviour in Parents and Children during Weaning in PKU: A Case-Control Study. Nutrients 2019, 11, 2857. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11122857

AMA Style

Evans S, Daly A, Wildgoose J, Cochrane B, Ashmore C, Kearney S, MacDonald A. Mealtime Anxiety and Coping Behaviour in Parents and Children during Weaning in PKU: A Case-Control Study. Nutrients. 2019; 11(12):2857. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11122857

Chicago/Turabian Style

Evans, Sharon; Daly, Anne; Wildgoose, Jo; Cochrane, Barbara; Ashmore, Catherine; Kearney, Shauna; MacDonald, Anita. 2019. "Mealtime Anxiety and Coping Behaviour in Parents and Children during Weaning in PKU: A Case-Control Study" Nutrients 11, no. 12: 2857. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11122857

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