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Glutathione and Nitric Oxide: Key Team Players in Use and Disuse of Skeletal Muscle

1
IRCCS San Raffaele Pisana, Department of Human Sciences and Promotion of the Quality of Life, San Raffaele Roma Open University, 00166 Rome, Italy
2
IRCCS San Raffaele ‘La Pisana’, 00166 Rome, Italy
3
Department of Public Health and Infectious Diseases, Sapienza University of Rome, 00185 Rome, Italy
4
Department of Biology, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, 00133 Rome, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2318; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102318
Received: 31 July 2019 / Revised: 11 September 2019 / Accepted: 16 September 2019 / Published: 30 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Glutathione Metabolism)
Glutathione (GSH) is the main non-enzymatic antioxidant playing an important role in detoxification, signal transduction by modulation of protein thiols redox status and direct scavenging of radicals. The latter function is not only performed against reactive oxygen species (ROS) but GSH also has a fundamental role in buffering nitric oxide (NO), a physiologically-produced molecule having-multifaceted functions. The efficient rate of GSH synthesis and high levels of GSH-dependent enzymes are characteristic features of healthy skeletal muscle where, besides the canonical functions, it is also involved in muscle contraction regulation. Moreover, NO production in skeletal muscle is a direct consequence of contractile activity and influences several metabolic myocyte pathways under both physiological and pathological conditions. In this review, we will consider the homeostasis and intersection of GSH with NO and then we will restrict the discussion on their role in processes related to skeletal muscle function and degeneration. View Full-Text
Keywords: atrophy; exercise; oxidative stress; nitrosative stress; inflammation atrophy; exercise; oxidative stress; nitrosative stress; inflammation
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Baldelli, S.; Ciccarone, F.; Limongi, D.; Checconi, P.; Palamara, A.T.; Ciriolo, M.R. Glutathione and Nitric Oxide: Key Team Players in Use and Disuse of Skeletal Muscle. Nutrients 2019, 11, 2318.

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