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Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010112

Temporal Progression of Fatty Acids in Preterm and Term Human Milk of Mothers from Switzerland

1
Nestlé Institute of Health Sciences, Nestlé Research, Lausanne 1000, Switzerland
2
Clinical Development Unit, Nestlé Research Asia, Singapore 138567, Singapore
3
Clinic of Neonatology, Department Woman Mother Child, University Hospital of Lausanne, Lausanne 1011, Switzerland
4
Nestlé Institute of Food Safety & Analytical Science, Nestlé Research, Lausanne 1000, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 November 2018 / Revised: 18 December 2018 / Accepted: 25 December 2018 / Published: 8 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Milk and Lactation)
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Abstract

We longitudinally compared fatty acids (FA) from human milk (HM) of mothers delivering term and preterm infants. HM was collected for 4 months postpartum at 12 time points for preterm and for 2 months postpartum at 8 time points for term group. Samples were collected from the first feed of the morning, and single breast was fully expressed. FA were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with flame ionization detector. Oleic, palmitic and linoleic acids were the most abundant FA across lactation and in both groups. Preterm colostrum contained significantly (p < 0.05) higher 8:0, 10:0, 12:0, sum medium chain fatty acids (MCFA), 18:3 n-3 FA compared to term counterparts. Preterm mature milk contained significantly higher 12:0, 14:0, 18:2 n-6, sum saturated fatty acids (SFA), and sum MCFA. We did not observe any significant differences between the preterm and term groups for docosahexaenoic acid, arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid at any stage of lactation. Overall, preterm milk was higher for SFA with a major contribution from MCFA and higher in 18:2 n-6. These observational differences needs to be studied further for their implications on preterm developmental outcomes and on fortification strategies of either mothers’ own milk or donor human milk. View Full-Text
Keywords: human milk; preterm; term; infants; lipids; fatty acids; human milk fortification; docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); mothers’ own milk; donor human milk; arachidonic acid (ARA); eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) human milk; preterm; term; infants; lipids; fatty acids; human milk fortification; docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); mothers’ own milk; donor human milk; arachidonic acid (ARA); eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Thakkar, S.K.; De Castro, C.A.; Beauport, L.; Tolsa, J.-F.; Fischer Fumeaux, C.J.; Affolter, M.; Giuffrida, F. Temporal Progression of Fatty Acids in Preterm and Term Human Milk of Mothers from Switzerland. Nutrients 2019, 11, 112.

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