Next Article in Journal
Avocado Oil Extract Modulates Auditory Hair Cell Function through the Regulation of Amino Acid Biosynthesis Genes
Previous Article in Journal
Temporal Progression of Fatty Acids in Preterm and Term Human Milk of Mothers from Switzerland
Previous Article in Special Issue
Effect of Wakame and Carob Pod Snacks on Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
Article Menu
Issue 1 (January) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 114;

Bamboo Stems (Phyllostachys nigra variety henosis) Containing Polyphenol Mixtures Activate Nrf2 and Attenuate Phenylhydrazine-Induced Oxidative Stress and Liver Injury

Laboratory of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Chosun University, Gwangju 61452, Korea
College of Korean Medicine, Dongshin University, Naju, Jeollanam-do 58245, Korea
Department of Biochemical and Polymer Engineering, Chosun University, Gwangju 61452, Korea
RC-HCLD, College of Korean Medicine, Daegu Haany University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongsangbuk-do 38610, Korea
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 November 2018 / Revised: 28 December 2018 / Accepted: 1 January 2019 / Published: 8 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Liver, Oxidative Stress and Metabolic Syndromes)
Full-Text   |   PDF [3799 KB, uploaded 8 January 2019]   |  


This study was designed to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of bamboo stems using in vitro and in vivo experimental liver damage models. Ethyl acetate fraction of 80% ethanol extract of Phyllostachys nigra stem (PN3) containing polyphenols had a higher NQO1-ARE reporter gene activity as monitored by the activity of the NF-E2-related factor (Nrf2) antioxidant pathway in cells in comparison to extracts from other species and under other conditions. The Nrf2 was translocated from the cytosol to the nucleus in response to PN3, followed by induction of the Nrf2 target gene expression, including HO-1, GCL, and NQO-1 in HepG2 cells. Phosphorylation of Nrf2 in HepG2 cells was enhanced in PN3, which was mediated by PKCδ, ERK, and p38 MAPK. Consequently, PN3 inhibited arachidonic acid (AA) + iron-induced reactive oxygen species generation and glutathione depletion, and, thus, highlighted their role in cytotoxicity. Treatment with major polyphenols of PN3, including catechin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and p-coumaric acid, also improved AA + iron-mediated oxidative stress and, thus, improved cell viability. Treatment with phenylhydrazine in mice, i.e., the iron overload liver injury model, increased plasma alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels and changed histological features in mice—a response that was almost completely blocked by PN3 administration. Moreover, PN3 extract mitigated phenylhydrazine-induced oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. Conclusively, PN3 can exert a hepatoprotective effect against iron overload-induced acute liver damage due to its antioxidant properties. View Full-Text
Keywords: bamboo stems; PN3; Nrf2; iron overload; liver injury bamboo stems; PN3; Nrf2; iron overload; liver injury

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary materials

  • Supplementary File 1:

    PDF-Document (PDF, 219 KB)

  • Externally hosted supplementary file 1
    Link: http://no
    Description: Supplementary Figure 1.

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Yang, J.H.; Choi, M.-H.; Na, C.-S.; Cho, S.S.; Kim, J.H.; Ku, S.K.; Cho, I.J.; Shin, H.-J.; Ki, S.H. Bamboo Stems (Phyllostachys nigra variety henosis) Containing Polyphenol Mixtures Activate Nrf2 and Attenuate Phenylhydrazine-Induced Oxidative Stress and Liver Injury. Nutrients 2019, 11, 114.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top