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Association between Vitamin D Deficiency and Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the Vitamin D Receptor and GC Genes and Analysis of Their Distribution in Mexican Postmenopausal Women

1
Academic Unit in Epidemiological Research, Research Center in Policies, Population and Health, School of Medicine, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Mexico City 04510, Mexico
2
Nutrition and Health Research Center, National Institute of Public Health (INSP), Cuernavaca, Morelos 62100, Mexico
3
Genomics of Bone Metabolism Laboratory, National Institute of Genomic Medicine (INMEGEN), Mexico City 14610, Mexico
4
Department of Genetics, National Institute of Rehabilitation (INR), Mexico City 14389, Mexico
5
Center for Evaluation and Surveys Research, National Institute of Public Health (INSP), Cuernavaca, Morelos 62100, Mexico
6
Inmunogenomics and Metabolic Diseases Laboratory, National Institute of Genomic Medicine (INMEGEN), Mexico City 14610, Mexico
7
Center for Population Health Research, National Institute of Public Health (INSP), Cuernavaca, Morelos 62100, Mexico
8
Epidemiology and Health Services Research Unit, Mexican Institute of Social Security, Cuernavaca, Morelos 62000, Mexico
9
UCLA Department of Health Policy and Management, UCLA Kaiser Permanente Center for Health Equity, Fielding School of Public Health and Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, CA 90001, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1175; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091175
Received: 24 July 2018 / Revised: 18 August 2018 / Accepted: 23 August 2018 / Published: 27 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Status and Bone Health)
Genome-wide association studies in people with European ancestry suggest that polymorphisms in genes involved in vitamin D (VD) metabolism have an effect on serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D. However, nothing is known about these polymorphisms in populations with Amerindian ancestry. Our aim was to evaluate the association between genetic variants on the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and the vitamin D binding protein (GC) genes, involved in the VD pathway, and VD deficiency in 689 unrelated Mexican postmenopausal women. We also described the frequencies of these variants in 355 postmenopausal women from different ethnic groups. Based on our preliminary results of 400 unrelated Mexican postmenopausal women, three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected for genotyping. The SNPs rs4516035 in VDR and rs2282679 in GC were associated with VD deficiency. Additionally, women who carried three risk alleles had a 3.67 times higher risk of suffering VD deficiency, compared to women with no risk alleles (p = 0.002). The rs4516035-C allele frequency in the Amerindian population was enriched in the South East region of Mexico. In contrast, the highest frequency of the rs2298850-C allele, a proxy for the tag SNP rs2282679, was observed in the South region. Our results indicate that genetic variants in VDR and GC genes are associated with VD deficiency in Mexican postmenopausal women. Moreover, an association was observed for the variants rs3794060 and rs4944957 of the DHCR7/NADSYN1 gene with osteopenia/osteoporosis. View Full-Text
Keywords: total 25(OH) vitamin D; genetic polymorphism; vitamin D-binding protein; vitamin D receptor; bone mineral density; Mexican-Mestizo total 25(OH) vitamin D; genetic polymorphism; vitamin D-binding protein; vitamin D receptor; bone mineral density; Mexican-Mestizo
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Rivera-Paredez, B.; Macías, N.; Martínez-Aguilar, M.M.; Hidalgo-Bravo, A.; Flores, M.; Quezada-Sánchez, A.D.; Denova-Gutiérrez, E.; Cid, M.; Martínez-Hernández, A.; Orozco, L.; Quiterio, M.; Flores, Y.N.; Salmerón, J.; Velázquez-Cruz, R. Association between Vitamin D Deficiency and Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the Vitamin D Receptor and GC Genes and Analysis of Their Distribution in Mexican Postmenopausal Women. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1175.

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