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Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 1050; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10081050

Food Sources of Energy and Nutrients of Public Health Concern and Nutrients to Limit with a Focus on Milk and other Dairy Foods in Children 2 to 18 Years of Age: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011–2014

1
Louisiana State University Agricultural Center (Emeritus), School of Nutrition and Food Science, 143 Kenilworth Parkway, Baton Rouge, LA 70808, USA
2
USDA/ARS/CNRC, 1100 Bates St., Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA
3
Nutrition Impact, LLC, 9725 D Drive North, Battle Creek, MI 49014, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 July 2018 / Revised: 30 July 2018 / Accepted: 2 August 2018 / Published: 9 August 2018
Full-Text   |   PDF [324 KB, uploaded 9 August 2018]

Abstract

Many children are not meeting current nutrient recommendations. The objective of this study was to determine the food sources of energy, nutrients of public health concern, and nutrients to limit with a focus on dairy foods. Twenty-four-hour dietary recall data from children 2–5 (n = 1511), 6–11 (n = 2193), and 12–18 years (n = 2172) participating in NHANES 2011–2014 were analyzed. Energy, fiber, calcium, potassium, vitamin D, added sugars, saturated fatty acids (SFA), and sodium intakes were sample-weighted and ranked on percentage contribution to the diet using specific food group intake and disaggregated data for dairy foods. For children 2–5, 6–11, and 12–18 years, milk, sweet bakery products, and sweetened beverages, respectively were the top food sources of energy, respectively. For calcium, potassium, and vitamin D, milk was the top ranked food source in all age groups. For children 2–5, 6–11, and 12–18 years, milk, sweet bakery products, and pizza, respectively were the top three ranked food sources of SFA; and sugar sweetened beverages and sweet bakery products were to top two food group sources of added sugars. Cured meats/poultry, pizza, and pizza, respectively, were the top ranked food sources of sodium for the three age groups. Identification of food sources of these nutrients can help health professionals implement appropriate dietary recommendations and plan age-appropriate interventions. View Full-Text
Keywords: NHANES; energy intakes; nutrients; children; adolescents; dietary sources; dairy foods NHANES; energy intakes; nutrients; children; adolescents; dietary sources; dairy foods
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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O’Neil, C.E.; Nicklas, T.A.; Fulgoni, V.L., III. Food Sources of Energy and Nutrients of Public Health Concern and Nutrients to Limit with a Focus on Milk and other Dairy Foods in Children 2 to 18 Years of Age: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011–2014. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1050.

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