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Open AccessArticle

High-Fructose Corn-Syrup-Sweetened Beverage Intake Increases 5-Hour Breast Milk Fructose Concentrations in Lactating Women

1
Department of Preventive Medicine, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089, USA
2
Department of Pediatrics, Health Sciences Center, The University of Oklahoma, Oklahoma City, OK 73019, USA
3
Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, The University of Minnesota School of Public Health, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
4
School of Medicine, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63130, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 669; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060669
Received: 30 April 2018 / Revised: 16 May 2018 / Accepted: 21 May 2018 / Published: 24 May 2018
This study determined the effects of consuming a high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS)-sweetened beverage on breast milk fructose, glucose, and lactose concentrations in lactating women. At six weeks postpartum, lactating mothers (n = 41) were randomized to a crossover study to consume a commercially available HFCS-sweetened beverage or artificially sweetened control beverage. At each session, mothers pumped a complete breast milk expression every hour for six consecutive hours. The baseline fasting concentrations of breast milk fructose, glucose, and lactose were 5.0 ± 1.3 µg/mL, 0.6 ± 0.3 mg/mL, and 6.8 ± 1.6 g/dL, respectively. The changes over time in breast milk sugars were significant only for fructose (treatment × time, p < 0.01). Post hoc comparisons showed the HFCS-sweetened beverage vs. control beverage increased breast milk fructose at 120 min (8.8 ± 2.1 vs. 5.3 ± 1.9 µg/mL), 180 min (9.4 ± 1.9 vs. 5.2 ± 2.2 µg/mL), 240 min (7.8 ± 1.7 vs. 5.1 ± 1.9 µg/mL), and 300 min (6.9 ± 1.4 vs. 4.9 ± 1.9 µg/mL) (all p < 0.05). The mean incremental area under the curve for breast milk fructose was also different between treatments (14.7 ± 1.2 vs. −2.60 ± 1.2 µg/mL × 360 min, p < 0.01). There was no treatment × time interaction for breast milk glucose or lactose. Our data suggest that the consumption of an HFCS-sweetened beverage increased breast milk fructose concentrations, which remained elevated up to five hours post-consumption. View Full-Text
Keywords: breast milk; breastfeeding; lactation; infant nutrition; infant feeding; sugar breast milk; breastfeeding; lactation; infant nutrition; infant feeding; sugar
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Berger, P.K.; Fields, D.A.; Demerath, E.W.; Fujiwara, H.; Goran, M.I. High-Fructose Corn-Syrup-Sweetened Beverage Intake Increases 5-Hour Breast Milk Fructose Concentrations in Lactating Women. Nutrients 2018, 10, 669.

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