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Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 163; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10020163

A Randomized Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Trial Investigating the Effect of Fish Oil Supplementation on Gene Expression Related to Insulin Action, Blood Lipids, and Inflammation in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus-Fish Oil Supplementation and Gestational Diabetes

1
Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, School of Medicine, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak 6618634683, Iran
2
Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, School of Medicine, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan 8715988141, Iran
3
Pure North S’Energy Foundation, Calgary, AB T2R 0C5, Canada
4
Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan 8715988141, Iran
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 December 2017 / Revised: 22 January 2018 / Accepted: 26 January 2018 / Published: 31 January 2018
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Abstract

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a common complication of pregnancy, and it is mostly associated with postpartum diabetes, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. Fish oil (omega-3) supplementation has been shown to reduce the risk of different chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and cancers, though the evidence of its impact on gestational diabetes is scarce. Our goal in this study was to determine the effect of fish oil administration on gene expression related to insulin action, blood lipids, and inflammation in women with GDM. Participants with GDM (n = 40), aged 18–40 years, were randomized to take either 1000 mg fish oil capsules, containing 180 mg eicosapentaenoic acid and 120 mg docosahexaenoic acid (n = 20), or placebo (n = 20) twice a day for 6 weeks. Gene expression related to insulin, lipids, and inflammation was quantified in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of GDM women using Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) method. Results of RT-PCR indicated that omega-3 supplementation upregulated gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) (P = 0.04) in PBMCs of patients with GDM, compared with the placebo. In addition, gene expression of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) (P < 0.001), interleukin-1 (IL-1) (P = 0.007), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) (P = 0.01) was downregulated in PBMCs of women with GDM, following omega-3 supplementation. No significant effect of omega-3 supplementation was indicated on gene expression of IL-8 in PBMCs of patients with GDM. Overall, fish oil supplementation for 6 weeks in women with GDM significantly improved gene expression of PPAR-γ, IL-1, and TNF-α, but not gene expression of IL-8. View Full-Text
Keywords: fish oil; gene expression; insulin; lipid; inflammation; gestational diabetes fish oil; gene expression; insulin; lipid; inflammation; gestational diabetes
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Jamilian, M.; Samimi, M.; Mirhosseini, N.; Afshar Ebrahimi, F.; Aghadavod, E.; Taghizadeh, M.; Asemi, Z. A Randomized Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Trial Investigating the Effect of Fish Oil Supplementation on Gene Expression Related to Insulin Action, Blood Lipids, and Inflammation in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus-Fish Oil Supplementation and Gestational Diabetes. Nutrients 2018, 10, 163.

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