Next Article in Journal
Water Intake, Water Balance, and the Elusive Daily Water Requirement
Previous Article in Journal
Selenium and Type 2 Diabetes: Systematic Review
Article Menu
Issue 12 (December) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Nutrients 2018, 10(12), 1927; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10121927

Gluten Immunogenic Peptides as Standard for the Evaluation of Potential Harmful Prolamin Content in Food and Human Specimen

1
Biomedal Ltd., 41900 Sevilla, Spain
2
Facultad de Farmacia, Departamento de Microbiología y Parasitología, Universidad de Sevilla, 41012 Sevilla, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 November 2018 / Revised: 23 November 2018 / Accepted: 29 November 2018 / Published: 5 December 2018
Full-Text   |   PDF [831 KB, uploaded 11 December 2018]   |  

Abstract

Gluten is a complex mixture of storage proteins in cereals like wheat, barley, and rye. Prolamins are the main components of gluten. Their high content in proline and glutamine makes them water-insoluble and difficult to digest in the gastrointestinal tract. Partial digestion generates peptide sequences which trigger immune responses in celiac and gluten-sensitive patients. Gluten detection in food is challenging because of the diversity, in various food matrices, of protein proportions or modifications and the huge number of immunogenic sequences with differential potential immunoactivity. Attempts to develop standard reference materials have been unsuccessful. Recent studies have reported the detection of a limited number of dominant Gluten Immunogenic Peptides (GIP) that share similarities to epitopes presented in the α-gliadin 33-mer, which showed to be highly proteolytic resistant and is considered to be the most immunodominant peptide within gluten in celiac disease (CD). GIP were detectable and quantifiable in very different kind of difficult to analyze food, revealing the potential immunogenicity by detecting T-cell activity of celiac patients. But GIP were also found in stool and urine of celiac patients on a supposedly gluten-free diet (GFD), showing the capacity to resist and be absorbed and excreted from the body, providing the first simple and objective means to assess adherence to the GFD. Methods to specifically and sensitively detect the most active GIP in food and biological fluids are rational candidates may use similar analytical standard references for determination of the immunopathological risk of gluten exposure in gluten-related diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: gluten immunogenic peptides; celiac disease; gluten quantitation; gluten food analysis gluten immunogenic peptides; celiac disease; gluten quantitation; gluten food analysis
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Cebolla, Á.; Moreno, M.L.; Coto, L.; Sousa, C. Gluten Immunogenic Peptides as Standard for the Evaluation of Potential Harmful Prolamin Content in Food and Human Specimen. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1927.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top