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Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1710; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111710

Kiwifruit Exchanges for Increased Nutrient Richness with Little Effect on Carbohydrate Intake, Glycaemic Impact, or Insulin Response

1
New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research, Private Bag 11600, Palmerston North 4442, New Zealand
2
Riddet Institute, Massey University, Palmerston North 4442, New Zealand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 October 2018 / Revised: 5 November 2018 / Accepted: 5 November 2018 / Published: 8 November 2018
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Abstract

Background: Kiwifruit are nutrient-rich and have properties which indicate a low glycaemic impact compared with many cooked cereal foods, suggesting that they may be used for dietary enrichment of vitamin C without glycaemic cost. Aim: To develop tables for equi-carbohydrate and equi-glycaemic partial exchange of kiwifruit for glycaemic carbohydrate foods. Method: The available carbohydrate content of Zespri® Green and Zespri® SunGold kiwifruit was determined as sugars released during in vitro digestive analysis. Glycaemic potency was determined as grams of glucose equivalents (GGEs) in a clinical trial using 200 g (a two-kiwifruit edible portion) of each cultivar, non-diabetic subjects (n = 20), and a glucose reference. GGE values were also estimated for a range of carbohydrate foods in the New Zealand Food Composition Database for which available carbohydrate and glycaemic index values were available. The values allowed exchange tables to be constructed for either equi-carbohydrate or equi-glycaemic partial exchange of kiwifruit for the foods. Results: GGE values of both kiwifruit cultivars were low (“Hayward”, 6.6 glucose equivalents/100 g; “Zesy002”, 6.7 glucose equivalents/100 g). Partial equi-carbohydrate substitution of foods in most carbohydrate food categories substantially increased vitamin C with little change in glycaemic impact, while equi-glycaemic partial substitution by kiwifruit could be achieved with little change in carbohydrate intake. Conclusion: Equi-carbohydrate partial exchange of kiwifruit for starchy staple foods is a means of greatly increasing nutrient richness in a diet without the physiological costs of increased glycaemia and insulin responses or carbohydrate intake. View Full-Text
Keywords: kiwifruit; carbohydrate exchanges; glycaemic response; glycaemic glucose equivalents; vitamin C kiwifruit; carbohydrate exchanges; glycaemic response; glycaemic glucose equivalents; vitamin C
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Monro, J.; Bentley-Hewitt, K.; Mishra, S. Kiwifruit Exchanges for Increased Nutrient Richness with Little Effect on Carbohydrate Intake, Glycaemic Impact, or Insulin Response. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1710.

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