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Relative Validity and Reproducibility of a Food Frequency Questionnaire to Assess Nutrients and Food Groups of Relevance to the Gut Microbiota in Young Children

1
Department of Human Nutrition, University of Otago, P.O. Box 56, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand
2
Department of Medicine, Dunedin School of Medicine, University of Otago, P.O. Box 56, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand
3
Nutrition Society of New Zealand, P.O. Box 2039, Whanganui 4543, New Zealand
4
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Otago, P.O. Box 56, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand
5
Microbiome Otago, University of Otago, P.O. Box 56, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand
6
Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition (IPAN), School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Geelong, VIC 3220, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1627; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111627
Received: 7 October 2018 / Revised: 19 October 2018 / Accepted: 22 October 2018 / Published: 2 November 2018
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Abstract

Dietary fiber is an important nutrient for the gut microbiota, with different fiber fractions having different effects. The aim of this study was to determine the relative validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire (EAT5 FFQ) for measuring intake of fiber, and low and high fiber foods, in studies examining diet and gut microbiota in young children. One hundred parents of 5-year old children completed the 123-item EAT5 FFQ on two occasions four weeks apart. A 3-day weighed diet record (WDR) was completed on non-consecutive days between FFQ appointments. Mean correlations between the (randomly chosen) FFQ and WDR were acceptable for nutrient and food group intakes (r = 0.34 and r = 0.41 respectively). Gross misclassification was below chance (12.5%) for quartiles of nutrient (mean 5.7%) and food group (mean 5.1%) intake. ‘Absolute values for surrogate categories’ suggested the FFQ clearly differentiated between highest and lowest quartiles for all nutrients and food groups tested. Mean correlations between repeat administrations of the FFQ suggested very good reproducibility for nutrients (r = 0.83) and food groups (r = 0.80). The EAT5 FFQ appears to be an appropriate tool for investigating the intake of nutrients and food groups of relevance to the gut microbiota, and is the first FFQ validated to measure total, soluble and insoluble non-starch polysaccharide intakes in young children. View Full-Text
Keywords: food frequency questionnaire; dietary fiber; microbiota; validity; reproducibility; children; New Zealand food frequency questionnaire; dietary fiber; microbiota; validity; reproducibility; children; New Zealand
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Leong, C.; Taylor, R.W.; Haszard, J.J.; Fleming, E.A.; Tannock, G.W.; Szymlek-Gay, E.A.; Cameron, S.L.; Yu, R.; Carter, H.; Chee, L.K.; Kennedy, L.; Moore, R.; Heath, A.-L.M. Relative Validity and Reproducibility of a Food Frequency Questionnaire to Assess Nutrients and Food Groups of Relevance to the Gut Microbiota in Young Children. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1627.

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