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Remote Sens. 2017, 9(12), 1325; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs9121325

Adjustment of Sentinel-2 Multi-Spectral Instrument (MSI) Red-Edge Band Reflectance to Nadir BRDF Adjusted Reflectance (NBAR) and Quantification of Red-Edge Band BRDF Effects

Geospatial Sciences Center of Excellence, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007, USA
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Received: 10 November 2017 / Revised: 7 December 2017 / Accepted: 13 December 2017 / Published: 16 December 2017
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Abstract

Optical wavelength satellite data have directional reflectance effects over non-Lambertian surfaces, described by the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF). The Sentinel-2 multi-spectral instrument (MSI) acquires data over a 20.6° field of view that have been shown to have non-negligible BRDF effects in the visible, near-infrared, and short wave infrared bands. MSI red-edge BRDF effects have not been investigated. In this study, they are quantified by an examination of 6.6 million (January 2016) and 10.7 million (April 2016) pairs of forward and back scatter reflectance observations extracted over approximately 20° × 10° of southern Africa. Non-negligible MSI red-edge BRDF effects up to 0.08 (reflectance units) across the 290 km wide MSI swath are documented. A recently published MODIS BRDF parameter c-factor approach to adjust MSI visible, near-infrared, and short wave infrared reflectance to nadir BRDF-adjusted reflectance (NBAR) is adapted for application to the MSI red-edge bands. The red-edge band BRDF parameters needed to implement the algorithm are provided. The parameters are derived by a linear wavelength interpolation of fixed global MODIS red and NIR BRDF model parameters. The efficacy of the interpolation is investigated using POLDER red, red-edge, and NIR BRDF model parameters, and is shown to be appropriate for the c-factor NBAR generation approach. After adjustment to NBAR, red-edge MSI BRDF effects were reduced for the January data (acquired close to the solar principal where BRDF effects are maximal) and the April data (acquired close to the orthogonal plane) for all the MSI red-edge bands. View Full-Text
Keywords: red-edge; bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF); NBAR; Sentinel-2; MODIS; Landsat; POLDER; Africa red-edge; bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF); NBAR; Sentinel-2; MODIS; Landsat; POLDER; Africa
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Roy, D.P.; Li, Z.; Zhang, H.K. Adjustment of Sentinel-2 Multi-Spectral Instrument (MSI) Red-Edge Band Reflectance to Nadir BRDF Adjusted Reflectance (NBAR) and Quantification of Red-Edge Band BRDF Effects. Remote Sens. 2017, 9, 1325.

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