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Article

Effects of the High-Order Ionospheric Delay on GPS-Based Tropospheric Parameter Estimations in Turkey

1
Department of Geomatics Engineering, Zonguldak Bulent Ecevit University, Zonguldak 67100, Turkey
2
School of Remote Sensing and Geomatics Engineering, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044, China
3
Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200030, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(21), 3569; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12213569
Received: 14 September 2020 / Revised: 11 October 2020 / Accepted: 21 October 2020 / Published: 31 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GNSS High Rate Data for Research of the Ionosphere)
The tropospheric delay and gradients can be estimated using Global Positioning System (GPS) observations after removing the ionospheric delay, which has been widely used for atmospheric studies and forecasting. However, high-order ionospheric (HOI) delays are generally ignored in GPS processing to estimate atmospheric parameters. In this study, HOI effects on GPS-estimated tropospheric delay and gradients are investigated from two weeks of GPS data in June 2011 at selected GPS stations in Turkey. Results show that HOI effects are up to 6 mm on zenith tropospheric delay (ZTD), 4 mm on the North-South (NS) gradient and 12 mm on the East-West (EW) gradient during this period, but can reach over 30 mm in slant tropospheric delays. Furthermore, the HOI effects on tropospheric delay and gradient are larger in the daytime than the nighttime. Furthermore, HOI effects on tropospheric delay are further investigated on low and high solar activity days. The HOI effects on GPS estimated tropospheric delay and gradients in high solar activity days are higher than those in low solar activity days. View Full-Text
Keywords: GPS; high-order ionospheric delay; tropospheric delay; gradients GPS; high-order ionospheric delay; tropospheric delay; gradients
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MDPI and ACS Style

Akgul, V.; Gurbuz, G.; Kutoglu, S.H.; Jin, S. Effects of the High-Order Ionospheric Delay on GPS-Based Tropospheric Parameter Estimations in Turkey. Remote Sens. 2020, 12, 3569. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12213569

AMA Style

Akgul V, Gurbuz G, Kutoglu SH, Jin S. Effects of the High-Order Ionospheric Delay on GPS-Based Tropospheric Parameter Estimations in Turkey. Remote Sensing. 2020; 12(21):3569. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12213569

Chicago/Turabian Style

Akgul, Volkan, Gokhan Gurbuz, Senol H. Kutoglu, and Shuanggen Jin. 2020. "Effects of the High-Order Ionospheric Delay on GPS-Based Tropospheric Parameter Estimations in Turkey" Remote Sensing 12, no. 21: 3569. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12213569

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