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Neurol. Int., Volume 16, Issue 3 (June 2024) – 15 articles

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10 pages, 1030 KiB  
Brief Report
Neuronal Excitation Induces Tau Protein Dephosphorylation via Protein Phosphatase 1 Activation to Promote Its Binding with Stable Microtubules
by Sosuke Yagishita, Megumi Shibata, Akiko Furuno, Shuji Wakatsuki and Toshiyuki Araki
Neurol. Int. 2024, 16(3), 653-662; https://doi.org/10.3390/neurolint16030049 - 11 Jun 2024
Viewed by 216
Abstract
The tau protein is a microtubule-associated protein that promotes microtubule stabilization. The phosphorylation of the tau protein has been linked to its dissociation from microtubules. Here, we examined the relationship between neuronal depolarization activity and tau protein phosphorylation by employing model systems in [...] Read more.
The tau protein is a microtubule-associated protein that promotes microtubule stabilization. The phosphorylation of the tau protein has been linked to its dissociation from microtubules. Here, we examined the relationship between neuronal depolarization activity and tau protein phosphorylation by employing model systems in culture as well as in vivo. The KCl-evoked depolarization of cultured neurons has often been used to investigate the effects of neuronal activity. We found dephosphorylation at AT8 sites (S202, T205), T212, AT180 sites (T231, S235), and S396 in KCl-simulated cultured neurons. We also found that the KCl-induced tau protein dephosphorylation increases the level of the tau protein fractionated with stable microtubules. In an in vivo experiment, we demonstrated that the exposure of mice to a new environment activates protein phosphatase 1 in the mouse hippocampus and induces tau protein dephosphorylation. We also found an increased amount of the tau protein in a stable microtubule fraction, suggesting that the dephosphorylation of the tau protein may lead to its increased microtubule association in vivo. These results suggest that the association of microtubules with tau proteins may be regulated by the tau protein phosphorylation status affected by neuronal electrical activity. Full article
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10 pages, 927 KiB  
Article
Efficacy of Lasmiditan as a Secondary Treatment for Migraine Attacks after Unsuccessful Treatment with a Triptan
by Yasushi Shibata, Hiroshige Sato, Akiko Sato and Yoichi Harada
Neurol. Int. 2024, 16(3), 643-652; https://doi.org/10.3390/neurolint16030048 - 7 Jun 2024
Viewed by 378
Abstract
The combined use of lasmiditan and triptan is unexplored in medical literature. This study aimed to investigate whether the intake of lasmiditan following triptan improves migraine pain. Following triptan intake, if headache relief was less than 50% at 1 h, patients took 50 [...] Read more.
The combined use of lasmiditan and triptan is unexplored in medical literature. This study aimed to investigate whether the intake of lasmiditan following triptan improves migraine pain. Following triptan intake, if headache relief was less than 50% at 1 h, patients took 50 mg of lasmiditan within 2 h of migraine onset. Patients recorded headache intensity and adverse events (AEs) caused by lasmiditan at 1, 2, and 4 h after the intake of an additional 50 mg of lasmiditan. A significant reduction in pain scale was observed post 50 mg lasmiditan intake (p < 0.001, t-test). Pain relief was reported for 32 migraine attacks (80%) at 1 h after additional lasmiditan intake. Although AEs were observed in 63% of the patients who took an additional lasmiditan, most were mild and resolved 1 h after lasmiditan intake. Our study revealed the significant headache relief provided by an additional lasmiditan for patients who did not achieve satisfactory results following initial triptan intake for treating migraine. The AEs associated with this treatment strategy were mild and lasted for a short time. This study suggested that the combination of triptan and lasmiditan is promising for the treatment of migraine and should be studied in a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Full article
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12 pages, 1212 KiB  
Article
Nusinersen Treatment for Spinal Muscular Atrophy: Retrospective Multicenter Study of Pediatric and Adult Patients in Kuwait
by Asma AlTawari, Mohammad Zakaria, Walaa Kamel, Nayera Shaalan, Gamal Ahmed Ismail Elghazawi, Mohamed Esmat Anwar Ali, Dalia Salota, Amr Attia, Ehab Elsayed Ali Elanay, Osama Shalaby, Fatema Alqallaf, Vesna Mitic and Laila Bastaki
Neurol. Int. 2024, 16(3), 631-642; https://doi.org/10.3390/neurolint16030047 - 4 Jun 2024
Viewed by 238
Abstract
Spinal muscular atrophy is a neuromuscular genetic condition associated with progressive muscle weakness and atrophy. Nusinersen is an antisense oligonucleotide therapy approved for the treatment of 5q spinal muscular atrophy in pediatric and adult patients. The objective of this clinical case series is [...] Read more.
Spinal muscular atrophy is a neuromuscular genetic condition associated with progressive muscle weakness and atrophy. Nusinersen is an antisense oligonucleotide therapy approved for the treatment of 5q spinal muscular atrophy in pediatric and adult patients. The objective of this clinical case series is to describe the efficacy and safety of nusinersen in treating spinal muscular atrophy in 20 pediatric and 18 adult patients across six treatment centers in Kuwait. Functional motor assessments (Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia Infant Test of Neuromuscular Disorders, Hammersmith Functional Motor Scale Expanded, and Revised Upper Limb Module) were used to assess changes in motor function following nusinersen treatment. The safety assessment involved clinical monitoring of adverse events. The results demonstrate clinically meaningful or considerable improvement in motor performance for nearly all patients, lasting over 4 years in some cases. A total of 70% of patients in the pediatric cohort and 72% of patients in the adult cohort achieved a clinically meaningful improvement in motor function following nusinersen treatment. Additionally, nusinersen was well-tolerated in both cohorts. These findings add to the growing body of evidence relating to the clinical efficacy and safety of nusinersen. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into Genetic Neurological Diseases)
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11 pages, 275 KiB  
Article
Communicating Arteries and Leptomeningeal Collaterals: A Synergistic but Independent Effect on Patient Outcomes after Stroke
by Sara Sablić, Krešimir Dolić, Danijela Budimir Mršić, Mate Čičmir-Vestić, Antonela Matana, Sanja Lovrić Kojundžić and Maja Marinović Guić
Neurol. Int. 2024, 16(3), 620-630; https://doi.org/10.3390/neurolint16030046 - 2 Jun 2024
Viewed by 286
Abstract
The collateral system is a compensatory mechanism activated in the acute phase of an ischemic stroke. It increases brain perfusion to the hypoperfused area. Arteries of the Willis’ circle supply antegrade blood flow, while pial (leptomeningeal) arteries direct blood via retrograde flow. The [...] Read more.
The collateral system is a compensatory mechanism activated in the acute phase of an ischemic stroke. It increases brain perfusion to the hypoperfused area. Arteries of the Willis’ circle supply antegrade blood flow, while pial (leptomeningeal) arteries direct blood via retrograde flow. The aim of our retrospective study was to investigate the relationship between both collateral systems, computed tomography perfusion (CTP) values, and functional outcomes in acute stroke patients. Overall, 158 patients with anterior circulation stroke who underwent mechanical thrombectomy were included in the study. We analyzed the presence of communicating arteries and leptomeningeal arteries on computed tomography angiography. Patients were divided into three groups according to their collateral status. The main outcomes were the rate of functional independence 3 months after stroke (modified Rankin scale score, mRS) and mortality rate. Our study suggests that the collateral status, as indicated by the three groups (unfavorable, intermediate, and favorable), is linked to CT perfusion parameters, potential recuperation ratio, and stroke outcomes. Patients with favorable collateral status exhibited smaller core infarct and penumbra volumes, higher mismatch ratios, better potential for recuperation, and improved functional outcomes compared to patients with unfavorable or intermediate collateral status. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Treatment Strategy and Mechanism of Acute Ischemic Stroke)
15 pages, 3171 KiB  
Article
Introducing the Futile Recanalization Prediction Score (FRPS): A Novel Approach to Predict and Mitigate Ineffective Recanalization after Endovascular Treatment of Acute Ischemic Stroke
by Helen Shen, Bella B. Huasen, Murray C. Killingsworth and Sonu M. M. Bhaskar
Neurol. Int. 2024, 16(3), 605-619; https://doi.org/10.3390/neurolint16030045 - 30 May 2024
Viewed by 209
Abstract
Objective: This study aims to develop and validate the Futile Recanalization Prediction Score (FRPS), a novel tool designed to predict the severity risk of FR and aid in pre- and post-EVT risk assessments. Methods: The FRPS was developed using a rigorous [...] Read more.
Objective: This study aims to develop and validate the Futile Recanalization Prediction Score (FRPS), a novel tool designed to predict the severity risk of FR and aid in pre- and post-EVT risk assessments. Methods: The FRPS was developed using a rigorous process involving the selection of predictor variables based on clinical relevance and potential impact. Initial equations were derived from previous meta-analyses and refined using various statistical techniques. We employed machine learning algorithms, specifically random forest regression, to capture nonlinear relationships and enhance model performance. Cross-validation with five folds was used to assess generalizability and model fit. Results: The final FRPS model included variables such as age, sex, atrial fibrillation (AF), hypertension (HTN), diabetes mellitus (DM), hyperlipidemia, cognitive impairment, pre-stroke modified Rankin Scale (mRS), systolic blood pressure (SBP), onset-to-puncture time, sICH, and NIHSS score. The random forest model achieved a mean R-squared value of approximately 0.992. Severity ranges for FRPS scores were defined as mild (FRPS < 66), moderate (FRPS 66–80), and severe (FRPS > 80). Conclusions: The FRPS provides valuable insights for treatment planning and patient management by predicting the severity risk of FR. This tool may improve the identification of candidates most likely to benefit from EVT and enhance prognostic accuracy post-EVT. Further clinical validation in diverse settings is warranted to assess its effectiveness and reliability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Biomarkers in Stroke Prognosis)
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15 pages, 861 KiB  
Article
Outcome after Intracerebral Haemorrhage and Decompressive Craniectomy in Older Adults
by Thomas Kapapa, Stefanie Jesuthasan, Frederike Schiller, Franziska Schiller, Marcel Oehmichen, Dieter Woischneck, Benjamin Mayer and Andrej Pala
Neurol. Int. 2024, 16(3), 590-604; https://doi.org/10.3390/neurolint16030044 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 361
Abstract
Objective: There is a relationship between the incidence of spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) and age. The incidence increases with age. This study aims to facilitate the decision-making process in the treatment of ICH. It therefore investigated the outcome after ICH and decompressive craniectomy [...] Read more.
Objective: There is a relationship between the incidence of spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) and age. The incidence increases with age. This study aims to facilitate the decision-making process in the treatment of ICH. It therefore investigated the outcome after ICH and decompressive craniectomy (DC) in older adults (>65 years of age). Methods: Retrospective, multicentre, descriptive observational study including only consecutive patients who received DC as the consequence of ICH. Additive evacuation of ICH was performed after the individual decision of the neurosurgeon. Besides demographic data, clinical outcomes both at discharge and 12 months after surgery were evaluated according to the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS). Patients were divided into age groups of ≤65 and >65 years and cohorts with favourable outcome (GOS IV–V) and unfavourable outcome (GOS I to III). Results: 56 patients were treated. Mean age was 53.3 (SD: 16.13) years. There were 41 (73.2%) patients aged ≤65 years and 15 (26.8%) patients aged >65 years. During hospital stay, 10 (24.4%) patients in the group of younger (≤65 years) and 5 (33.3%) in the group of older patients (>65 years) died. Mean time between ictus and surgery was 44.4 (SD: 70.79) hours for younger and 27.9 (SD: 41.71) hours for older patients. A disturbance of the pupillary function on admission occurred in 21 (51.2%) younger and 2 (13.3%) older patients (p = 0.014). Mean arterial pressure was 99.9 (SD: 17.00) mmHg for younger and 112.9 (21.80) mmHg in older patients. After 12 months, there was no significant difference in outcome between younger patients (≤65 years) and older patients (>65 years) after ICH and DC (p = 0.243). Nevertheless, in the group of younger patients (≤65 years), 9% had a very good and 15% had a good outcome. There was no good recovery in the group of older patients (>65 years). Conclusion: Patients >65 years of age treated with microsurgical haematoma evacuation and DC after ICH are likely to have a poor outcome. Furthermore, in the long term, only a few older adults have a good functional outcome with independence in daily life activities. Full article
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23 pages, 669 KiB  
Review
The Effectiveness of Paired Associative Stimulation on Motor Recovery after Stroke: A Scoping Review
by Andrea Baroni, Annibale Antonioni, Giulia Fregna, Nicola Lamberti, Fabio Manfredini, Giacomo Koch, Alessandro D’Ausilio and Sofia Straudi
Neurol. Int. 2024, 16(3), 567-589; https://doi.org/10.3390/neurolint16030043 - 14 May 2024
Viewed by 404
Abstract
Paired associative stimulation (PAS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique combining transcranial magnetic stimulation and peripheral nerve stimulation. PAS allows connections between cortical areas and peripheral nerves (C/P PAS) or between cortical regions (C/C PAS) to be strengthened or weakened by spike-timing-dependent neural [...] Read more.
Paired associative stimulation (PAS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique combining transcranial magnetic stimulation and peripheral nerve stimulation. PAS allows connections between cortical areas and peripheral nerves (C/P PAS) or between cortical regions (C/C PAS) to be strengthened or weakened by spike-timing-dependent neural plasticity mechanisms. Since PAS modulates both neurophysiological features and motor performance, there is growing interest in its application in neurorehabilitation. We aimed to synthesize evidence on the motor rehabilitation role of PAS in stroke patients. We performed a literature search following the PRISMA Extension for Scoping Reviews Framework. Eight studies were included: one investigated C/C PAS between the cerebellum and the affected primary motor area (M1), seven applied C/P PAS over the lesional, contralesional, or both M1. Seven studies evaluated the outcome on upper limb and one on lower limb motor recovery. Although several studies omit crucial methodological details, PAS highlighted effects mainly on corticospinal excitability, and, more rarely, an improvement in motor performance. However, most studies failed to prove a correlation between neurophysiological changes and motor improvement. Although current studies seem to suggest a role of PAS in post-stroke rehabilitation, their heterogeneity and limited number do not yet allow definitive conclusions to be drawn. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Treatment Strategy and Mechanism of Acute Ischemic Stroke)
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6 pages, 216 KiB  
Case Report
Supranuclear Palsy as an Initial Presentation of the Adult-Onset Niemann-Pick Type C
by Ali A. Mohamed, Willy Gan, Denis Babici, Veronica Hagan, Raphael Wald and Marc Swerdloff
Neurol. Int. 2024, 16(3), 561-566; https://doi.org/10.3390/neurolint16030042 - 13 May 2024
Viewed by 443
Abstract
(1) Background: Niemann–Pick type C1 (NP-C1) is a lysosomal storage disorder that results in the defective trafficking of cholesterol and other cellular lipids in the endosomal–lysosomal pathway. This rare autosomal recessive disorder presents in three forms based on the age of onset. The [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Niemann–Pick type C1 (NP-C1) is a lysosomal storage disorder that results in the defective trafficking of cholesterol and other cellular lipids in the endosomal–lysosomal pathway. This rare autosomal recessive disorder presents in three forms based on the age of onset. The adult form presents in patients greater than 15 years of age but is rarely seen after the age of 30. Common symptoms of the late adult-onset category of NP-C1 include progressive cognitive impairment and ataxia, with psychiatric and movement disorders presenting less frequently than in other forms of NP-C1. Dystonic movement disorders present most frequently, along with chorea, myoclonus, and parkinsonism. Herein, we present a rare case of NP-C1, diagnosed at age 35 with an initial symptom of supranuclear palsy. The goal of the presented case is to highlight the importance of the neurological examination and an inclusive differential diagnosis in patients with new-onset supranuclear palsy. (2) Methods: A single case report. (3) Results: A 46-year-old male with a past medical history of NP-C1 was admitted to the hospital for respiratory distress. He was noted to have a supranuclear gaze palsy with partially preserved voluntary saccades to the right. His mother revealed that he first had difficulty moving his eyes at the age of 34. After multiple consultations and genetic testing one year later, he was diagnosed with NP-C1. (4) Conclusions: Because NP-C1 affects many regions of the brain responsible for eye movements, neurological eye assessments can be a useful tool in diagnoses. Furthermore, eye movement abnormalities may be the initial presenting symptom of NP-C1, predisposing patients to misdiagnosis with progressive supranuclear palsy and other conditions that may mimic early-stage NP-C1. Definitive diagnosis is achieved through genetic testing. Filipin staining test was the gold standard in the past. The NP-C Suspicion Index was developed to assist in diagnoses, but its efficacy is unclear with late adult-onset NP-C1. Although no cure exists, early identification can facilitate an improved symptom management course for patients. Miglustat, a glucosylceramide synthase (GCS) inhibitor, is the approved therapy in Europe specific to NP-C1 for slowing and preventing the neurological manifestations of NP-C1. Delays between symptom onset and treatment initiation are likely to result in poorer outcomes and a progression of neurological symptoms. High doses may present tolerance concerns, especially in cases of delayed treatment and advanced neurological deficit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Advances in Neurodegenerative Diseases)
10 pages, 257 KiB  
Article
The Usefulness of Factor XIII Concentration Assessment in Patients in the Acute Phase of Ischaemic Stroke Treated with Thrombolysis
by Małgorzata Wiszniewska, Urszula Włodarczyk, Magdalena Sury, Artur Słomka, Natalia Piekuś-Słomka, Anna Żdanowicz and Ewa Żekanowska
Neurol. Int. 2024, 16(3), 551-560; https://doi.org/10.3390/neurolint16030041 - 10 May 2024
Viewed by 375
Abstract
Background and Aims: In recent years, there has been a growing interest in factor XIII in ischaemic stroke. The study’s main aim was to assess the usefulness of factor XIII concentration determination in patients with acute ischaemic stroke (AIS) treated with thrombolysis with [...] Read more.
Background and Aims: In recent years, there has been a growing interest in factor XIII in ischaemic stroke. The study’s main aim was to assess the usefulness of factor XIII concentration determination in patients with acute ischaemic stroke (AIS) treated with thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA). Methods: The study was conducted in two groups of 84 patients with AIS: group I—with thrombolytic therapy and group II—without thrombolysis. A physical examination, neurological status (using the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, NIHSS), daily patients’ activities measured with the Barthel Index and Modified Rankin Scale (mRS), and blood parameters were conducted on day 1 and day 7. The following parameters were assessed: highly sensitive C-reaction protein (CRP), fibrinogen, D-dimers (DD), neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio (NLR index), and the concentration of factor XIII-A. Results: In group I, the concentration of XIII-A decreased significantly between day 1 and 7 (p < 0.001). In group I, the concentration of XIII-A on day 7 in Total Anterior Circulation Infarct (TACI) was significantly lower than in non-TACI stroke. XIII-A concentration in group I was significantly lower in patients < 31 points with Acute Stroke Registry and Analysis of Lausanne (ASTRAL). A greater decrease in XIII-A between the first sampling on day 1 and the second sampling on day 7 was associated with a worse patient neurological state in group I. Conclusions: In patients with AIS treated with t-PA, factor XIII concentrations decrease in the acute phase of stroke, and the largest decrease occurs in the TACI stroke. Determination of factor XIII concentration in patients with AIS can be used in clinical practice as an additional parameter supporting the assessment of stroke severity and may play a role in the prognosis; lower factor XIII-A activity may be a predictor of a worse prognosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Treatment Strategy and Mechanism of Acute Ischemic Stroke)
18 pages, 2075 KiB  
Article
Dynamics in Redox-Active Molecules Following Ischemic Preconditioning in the Brain
by Terezia Lysikova, Anna Tomascova, Maria Kovalska, Jan Lehotsky, Katarina Leskova Majdova, Peter Kaplan and Zuzana Tatarkova
Neurol. Int. 2024, 16(3), 533-550; https://doi.org/10.3390/neurolint16030040 - 9 May 2024
Viewed by 470
Abstract
It is well known that the brain is quite vulnerable to oxidative stress, initiating neuronal loss after ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. A potent protective mechanism is ischemic preconditioning (IPC), where proteins are among the primary targets. This study explores redox-active proteins’ role in preserving [...] Read more.
It is well known that the brain is quite vulnerable to oxidative stress, initiating neuronal loss after ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. A potent protective mechanism is ischemic preconditioning (IPC), where proteins are among the primary targets. This study explores redox-active proteins’ role in preserving energy supply. Adult rats were divided into the control, IR, and IPC groups. Protein profiling was conducted to identify modified proteins and then verified through activity assays, immunoblot, and immunohistochemical analyses. IPC protected cortex mitochondria, as evidenced by a 2.26-fold increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Additionally, stable core subunits of respiratory chain complexes ensured sufficient energy production, supported by a 16.6% increase in ATP synthase activity. In hippocampal cells, IPC led to the downregulation of energy-related dehydrogenases, while a significantly higher level of peroxiredoxin 6 (PRX6) was observed. Notably, IPC significantly enhanced glutathione reductase activity to provide sufficient glutathione to maintain PRX6 function. Astrocytes may mobilize PRX6 to protect neurons during initial ischemic events, by decreased PRX6 positivity in astrocytes, accompanied by an increase in neurons following both IR injury and IPC. Maintained redox signaling via astrocyte-neuron communication triggers IPC’s protective state. The partnership among PRX6, SOD, and glutathione reductase appears essential in safeguarding and stabilizing the hippocampus. Full article
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11 pages, 569 KiB  
Review
Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Pregnancy: A Comprehensive Review of Maternal and Fetal Implications
by Antonino Maniaci, Luigi La Via, Basilio Pecorino, Benito Chiofalo, Giuseppe Scibilia, Salvatore Lavalle and Paolo Scollo
Neurol. Int. 2024, 16(3), 522-532; https://doi.org/10.3390/neurolint16030039 - 7 May 2024
Viewed by 888
Abstract
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a prevalent yet underdiagnosed condition in pregnancy, associated with various maternal and fetal complications. This review synthesizes the current evidence on the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and neurological consequences of OSA in pregnancy, along with the potential management strategies. Articles [...] Read more.
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a prevalent yet underdiagnosed condition in pregnancy, associated with various maternal and fetal complications. This review synthesizes the current evidence on the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and neurological consequences of OSA in pregnancy, along with the potential management strategies. Articles were sourced from the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases until 2023. Our comprehensive review highlights that the incidence of OSA increases during pregnancy due to physiological changes such as weight gain and hormonal fluctuations. OSA in pregnancy is linked with gestational hypertension, pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, and potential adverse fetal outcomes such as intrauterine growth restriction and preterm birth. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy remains the most effective management strategy for pregnant women with OSA. However, adherence to CPAP therapy is often suboptimal. This comprehensive review underscores the importance of the early recognition, timely diagnosis, and effective management of OSA in pregnancy to improve both maternal and fetal outcomes. Future research should focus on enhancing screening strategies and improving adherence to CPAP therapy in this population. Full article
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4 pages, 420 KiB  
Correction
Correction: Szymanowicz et al. Headache and NOTCH3 Gene Variants in Patients with CADASIL. Neurol. Int. 2023, 15, 1238–1252
by Oliwia Szymanowicz, Izabela Korczowska-Łącka, Bartosz Słowikowski, Małgorzata Wiszniewska, Ada Piotrowska, Ulyana Goutor, Paweł P. Jagodziński, Wojciech Kozubski and Jolanta Dorszewska
Neurol. Int. 2024, 16(3), 518-521; https://doi.org/10.3390/neurolint16030038 - 6 May 2024
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Abstract
Figure Description [...] Full article
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16 pages, 2738 KiB  
Review
Oxidative Stress and Neurodegeneration: Insights and Therapeutic Strategies for Parkinson’s Disease
by Erjola Bej, Patrizia Cesare, Anna Rita Volpe, Michele d’Angelo and Vanessa Castelli
Neurol. Int. 2024, 16(3), 502-517; https://doi.org/10.3390/neurolint16030037 - 29 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1017
Abstract
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative condition marked by the gradual deterioration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Oxidative stress has been identified as a key player in the development of PD in recent studies. In the first part, we [...] Read more.
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative condition marked by the gradual deterioration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Oxidative stress has been identified as a key player in the development of PD in recent studies. In the first part, we discuss the sources of oxidative stress in PD, including mitochondrial dysfunction, dopamine metabolism, and neuroinflammation. This paper delves into the possibility of mitigating oxidative stress as a potential treatment approach for PD. In addition, we examine the hurdles and potential of antioxidant therapy, including the challenge of delivering antioxidants to the brain and the requirement for biomarkers to track oxidative stress in PD patients. However, even if antioxidant therapy holds promise, further investigation is needed to determine its efficacy and safety in PD treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Advances in Neurodegenerative Diseases)
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19 pages, 972 KiB  
Review
Pain Catastrophizing: How Far Have We Come
by Katarina Simic, Boris Savic and Nebojsa Nick Knezevic
Neurol. Int. 2024, 16(3), 483-501; https://doi.org/10.3390/neurolint16030036 - 26 Apr 2024
Viewed by 675
Abstract
The perception of pain is strongly influenced by various social, emotional, and cognitive factors. A psychological variable which has consistently been shown to exert its influence on pain is a cognitive process referred to as pain catastrophizing. Numerous studies have found it to [...] Read more.
The perception of pain is strongly influenced by various social, emotional, and cognitive factors. A psychological variable which has consistently been shown to exert its influence on pain is a cognitive process referred to as pain catastrophizing. Numerous studies have found it to be a strong predictor of pain intensity and disability across different clinical populations. It signifies a maladaptive response to pain marked by an exaggerated negative assessment, magnification of symptoms related to pain, and, in general, a tendency to experience marked pain-related worry, as well as experiencing feelings of helplessness when it comes to dealing with pain. Pain catastrophizing has been correlated to many adverse pain-related outcomes, including poor treatment response, unsatisfactory quality of life, and high disability related to both acute and chronic pain. Furthermore, there has been consistent evidence in support of a correlation between pain catastrophizing and mental health disorders, such as anxiety and depression. In this review, we aim to provide a comprehensive overview of the current state of knowledge regarding pain catastrophizing, with special emphasis on its clinical significance, and emerging treatment modalities which target it. Full article
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13 pages, 4623 KiB  
Article
An Extensive Study Regarding the Microscopic Anatomy of the Early Fetal Human Optic Nerve
by Mihai Alin Publik, Florin Mihail Filipoiu, Adrian Vasile Dumitru, Andrei Precup, Ioan-Andrei Petrescu, Iulian Slavu, Raluca Florentina Tulin, Adrian Tulin, Andra Ioana Baloiu, Monica Mihaela Cirstoiu and Octavian Munteanu
Neurol. Int. 2024, 16(3), 470-482; https://doi.org/10.3390/neurolint16030035 - 24 Apr 2024
Viewed by 458
Abstract
The development of the optic nerve and its surrounding tissues during the early fetal period is a convoluted period because it spans both the organogenesis period and the fetal period. This study details the microscopic anatomy and histoembryology of the optic nerve in [...] Read more.
The development of the optic nerve and its surrounding tissues during the early fetal period is a convoluted period because it spans both the organogenesis period and the fetal period. This study details the microscopic anatomy and histoembryology of the optic nerve in embryos during the early fetal period, including the second half of the first trimester of pregnancy. Serial sections through the orbit of variously aged embryos allowed us to analyze the nerve in both longitudinal and transverse aspects. A histological assessment and description of the structures surrounding and inside the nerve were performed, highlighting the cellular subtypes involved. By employing immunohistochemical techniques, we could characterize the presence and distribution of astrocytes within the optic nerve. Our findings suggest that by the 8th gestational week (WG) the structures are homologs to all the adult ones but with an early appearance so that maturation processes take place afterward. By this age, the axons forming the nerve are definitive adult axons. The glial cells do not yet exhibit adult phenotype, but their aspect becomes adult toward the 13th week. During its development the optic nerve increases in size then, at 14 weeks, it shrinks considerably, possibly through its neural maturation process. The morphological primordium of the blood–nerve barrier can be first noted at 10 WG and at 13 WG the morphological blood–nerve barrier is definitive. The meningeal primordium can be first noted as a layer of agglomerated fibroblasts, later toward 13 WG splitting in pachymeninx and leptomeninges and leaving space for intrinsic blood vessels. Full article
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