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World Electric Vehicle Journal is published by MDPI from Volume 9 issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by The World Electric Vehicle Association (WEVA) and its member the European Association for e-Mobility (AVERE), the Electric Drive Transportation Association (EDTA), and the Electric Vehicle Association of Asia Pacific (EVAAP). They are hosted by MDPI on mdpi.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with AVERE.

Table of Contents

World Electr. Veh. J., Volume 2, Issue 4 (December 2008) , Pages 236-380

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Open AccessArticle
Southern California-Edison’s Experience with the Hydrogen Demonstration Project
World Electr. Veh. J. 2008, 2(4), 375-380; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj2040375 - 26 Dec 2008
Viewed by 251
Abstract
Environmental and energy security concerns are driving federal agencies to evaluate alternative domestically produced energy. Among the various technologies studied, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) launched a five-year demonstration project named “Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project” to investigate [...] Read more.
Environmental and energy security concerns are driving federal agencies to evaluate alternative domestically produced energy. Among the various technologies studied, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) launched a five-year demonstration project named “Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project” to investigate the feasibility of hydrogen as a transportation fuel. To achieve the objective, the DOE selected a team of industry leaders to design, construct and operate a system consisting of various hydrogen fueling stations and fleet of fuel cell electric vehicles. One of the selected teams consists of Chevron Technology Ventures Inc., Hyundai American Motor Co., UTC Fuel Cells, and Southern California-Edison (SCE). Each team member is responsible for a key task: Chevron — design and build the hydrogen fueling station, Hyundai and UTC — build the Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles, and SCE — site-owner, characterize and operate the system in a real world setting.
The hydrogen fueling station was built at the corporate offices of SCE in Rosemead, California. This station is capable of maintaining a minimum storage capacity of 60 kg, a daily production and dispensing capacity of 40kg, a fueling pressure of 5,000PSI, and a maximum vehicle fueling time of five minutes. As an electric utility company, SCE will perform a detailed power analysis of the station and determined key functions, such as system power demand, efficiency, and reliability. Prior to fleet assessment, SCE characterized the performance of three fuel cell electric vehicles at its EV Technical Center in Pomona, California. This characterization included both freeway and urban drive-range testing. In addition, the vehicles will be deployed to various sites throughout the SCE service territory for fleet assessments. Among the various test sites will be Palm Springs, designated as the hot-climate site.
This project demonstrates the ability of hydrogen to be a possible source of sustainable domestic transportation energy. The lessons learned in this project provide valuable knowledge to the partners by conducting project tasks, such as permitting, code compliance, vehicle characterizations, fleet assessment, and infrastructure installation. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Electric Vehicle Fleet Experience at Southern California-Edison
World Electr. Veh. J. 2008, 2(4), 370-374; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj2040370 - 26 Dec 2008
Viewed by 190
Abstract
Southern California-Edison (SCE) currently operates the largest fleet of electric vehicles (EVs) in North America. SCE’s EV experiences began in 1987 with prototype and electric conversions, such as the Conceptor G-Van, the Pentastar TEVan, and U.S.E. Sedan. Between 1994 and 1997, after the [...] Read more.
Southern California-Edison (SCE) currently operates the largest fleet of electric vehicles (EVs) in North America. SCE’s EV experiences began in 1987 with prototype and electric conversions, such as the Conceptor G-Van, the Pentastar TEVan, and U.S.E. Sedan. Between 1994 and 1997, after the passage of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, SCE began using early OEM EVs, such as the Ford Ecostar and Chrysler TEVan, as well as early Toyota RAV4 EVs. The current fleet consists of 295 battery electric vehicles, primarily Toyota RAV4 EVs used by meter readers, with an additional 33 Ford Th!nk and GEM neighborhood electric vehicles used at company field offices for security patrols. The EV fleet has accumulated approximately 15 million zero-tailpipe-emission miles. In addition, the EV Technical Center (EVTC) in Pomona is constantly testing a variety of hybrid, plug-in hybrid, and fuel cell vehicles for potential use in Southern California-Edison’s fleet.
This paper chronicles EV fleet operational experiences by Southern California-Edison and insights into lessons learned from dealing with deployment obstacles. Much of the information focuses on the Toyota RAV4 EV due to the relatively large number of these vehicles in the fleet. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Regenerative Braking System for Series Hybrid Electric City Bus
World Electr. Veh. J. 2008, 2(4), 363-369; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj2040363 - 26 Dec 2008
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 615
Abstract
Regenerative Braking Systems (RBS) provide an efficient method to assist hybrid electric buses achieve better fuel economy while lowering exhaust emissions. This paper describes the design and testing of three regenerative braking systems, one of which is a series regenerative braking system and [...] Read more.
Regenerative Braking Systems (RBS) provide an efficient method to assist hybrid electric buses achieve better fuel economy while lowering exhaust emissions. This paper describes the design and testing of three regenerative braking systems, one of which is a series regenerative braking system and two of which are parallel regenerative braking systems. The existing friction based Adjustable Braking System (ABS) on the bus is integrated with each of the new braking systems in order to ensure bus safety and stability. The design of the RBS is facilitated by Simulink [1] which is used to build an interactive, multi-domain simulator that is allows parametric variation of vehicle speed, State of Charge (SOC) for the batteries, and the maximum current to be allowed to the batteries from the RBS. The required braking forces as a function of wheel speed are modeled using dSpace[2]. A Hardwire-in-the-Loop (HIL) experimental setup is used for component testing, followed by road testing using the Chinese Urban Bus Driving Cycle. Results indicate that all three braking systems provide some energy recovery, with the serial RBS providing the best combination of energy recovery with acceptable drivability, safety and stability. Overall results confirm that regenerative braking systems can recover significant braking energy while operating in a safe and predictable manner. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Control of Dual Mode Power Split Transmission for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle
World Electr. Veh. J. 2008, 2(4), 353-362; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj2040353 - 26 Dec 2008
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 264
Abstract
Motor control algorithm for a dual power split system is proposed for hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). The dual mode power split system consists of an electric variator, MG1 and MG2, and three planetary gear sets. In order to develop the control algorithm for [...] Read more.
Motor control algorithm for a dual power split system is proposed for hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). The dual mode power split system consists of an electric variator, MG1 and MG2, and three planetary gear sets. In order to develop the control algorithm for the best fuel economy, the dual mode PST is analyzed by network analysis. From the network analysis results, it is found that the dual mode PST efficiency decreases in the speed ratios where the power circulation occurs, and it is required that the ICE needs to be operated on the speed ratio region where the powertrain efficiency is relatively high. Using the dynamic models of the HEV powertrain, a motor control algorithm to obtain the high system efficiency is designed by inversion-based control. In order to evaluate performance of the control algorithm, HEV simulator is developed using Cruise and MATLAB Simulink. It is found from the simulation results that the motor control algorithm proposed in this study provides improved fuel economy since the motor control is able to provide the ICE operation on the speed ratio range, which gives relatively high powertrain system efficiency. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Development of the New Light-Duty Hybrid Truck
World Electr. Veh. J. 2008, 2(4), 343-352; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj2040343 - 26 Dec 2008
Viewed by 202
Abstract
Hino Motors, Ltd., developed the new light-duty hybrid truck whose traction motor, inverter, and traction battery were completely redesigned for maximizing output and efficiency. It also succeeds in balancing low fuel economy and low exhaust emissions by utilizing a combination of a new [...] Read more.
Hino Motors, Ltd., developed the new light-duty hybrid truck whose traction motor, inverter, and traction battery were completely redesigned for maximizing output and efficiency. It also succeeds in balancing low fuel economy and low exhaust emissions by utilizing a combination of a new hybrid system control with a specially developed diesel engine. Full article
Open AccessArticle
An At-All Operating Points Highly Efficient PMSM for HEV
World Electr. Veh. J. 2008, 2(4), 334-342; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj2040334 - 26 Dec 2008
Viewed by 217
Abstract
Average losses of the electric drive throughout a driving cycle are an important issue for hybrid electric vehicles. Permanent magnet synchronous electric motors (PMSM) are the most efficient electric drives under load conditions. However, they suffer from idle losses at high speed and [...] Read more.
Average losses of the electric drive throughout a driving cycle are an important issue for hybrid electric vehicles. Permanent magnet synchronous electric motors (PMSM) are the most efficient electric drives under load conditions. However, they suffer from idle losses at high speed and low load, which is a typical operating condition in highway cycles. This leads, in some cases, to even higher fuel consumption of HEV vs. conventional vehicles.
As well designed permanent magnet machines for HEV usually have excellent efficiency at operating points close to their rating, the main focus of the presented work is achieving an improvement in no load and reduced load conditions. Such losses will occur at high speed and low load, because the PMSM creates an induced voltage exceeding the battery voltage, which must be compensated by an inductive voltage drop through the motor inductance by a purely reactive current causing losses.
A proposal for a special design for PMSM with regard to the ability of active reduction of those losses at high speeds is made in the following comment: The compensation current depends on the motor inductance. Obviously, a high inductance in the axis of magnetization needs a low compensation current, whereas a low inductance in the quadrature-axis results in a large constant power range. So a special design of an asymmetrical PMSM has been developed in order to achieve minimum idle losses. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Where Is the Early Market for PHEVs?
World Electr. Veh. J. 2008, 2(4), 284-333; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj2040284 - 26 Dec 2008
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 402
Abstract
The relative fuel consumption reduction strengths of multiple passenger car powertrains are investigated. These include [A] conventional compression ignition (CI) direct injection (DI) turbocharged (TC) diesel (D) [CI-DI-TC-D]; [B] Atkinson cycle charge sustaining (CS) “split-hybrid” electric vehicles (HEV) fueled by gasoline/petrol (G) [HEVG]; [...] Read more.
The relative fuel consumption reduction strengths of multiple passenger car powertrains are investigated. These include [A] conventional compression ignition (CI) direct injection (DI) turbocharged (TC) diesel (D) [CI-DI-TC-D]; [B] Atkinson cycle charge sustaining (CS) “split-hybrid” electric vehicles (HEV) fueled by gasoline/petrol (G) [HEVG]; plug-in (P) hybrid gasoline/petrol [PHEVG)]; and indirect fuel injected (IDI) spark-ignited (SI) internal combustion engines (ICE) fueled by gasoline/petrol [SI-IDI-NA-G]. When we use simulation to evaluate the behavior of PHEVG powertrains, the size is a four-to-five passenger car platform that would be regarded as “compact” in the U.S. and standard in Europe. A careful distinction between probable driving patterns for PHEVGs when in charge-depletion (CD) mode vs. charge sustaining (CS) operation is made. Effects of variation in the amount of kWh storage and the CD strategy, between PHEVs with varying km of electric-equivalent range are also investigated. The effect of electric drive (battery and motor) power (kW) on ability of a vehicle to operate all-electrically, relative to its ability to reduce oil use, is examined. Four degrees of hybridization are briefly examined, including stop-start (SS), integrated starter-generator (ISG), mild parallel (MP), and full parallel (FP). Each of the parallel PHEVs examined is an FP. Powertrain model simulations and limited dynamometer test results for such PHEVGs are compared to the other vehicle types for certification and “on-road” driving cycles from Europe and the U.S. It is illustrated that the conventional wisdom that HEVG has significant superiority over CG primarily in urban stop and go driving should not automatically be extended to PHEVGs. The driving cycle information is related to systematically varying consumer patterns of dwelling choice and vehicle use in cities, suburbs, and rural areas, as well as across nations. Effects of fuel taxation choices by nation — for gasoline, diesel and electric fuel — are investigated. The effects that residential location and type, driving cycle, and fuel cost have on the relative marketability of the studied powertrains, when initially entering the market, are summarized. The sequence of events leading to early emergence of original equipment automaker production and marketing of PHEVGs is discussed. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Evolving Standardization Landscape for Electrically Propelled Vehicles
World Electr. Veh. J. 2008, 2(4), 276-283; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj2040276 - 26 Dec 2008
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 239
Abstract
The electrically propelled vehicle makes use of various technologies and is thus faced with diverse standardization and regulation cultures. The relevant standardization landscape is a complex one, particularly if new energy vectors such as hydrogen are taken into account. The growing interest for [...] Read more.
The electrically propelled vehicle makes use of various technologies and is thus faced with diverse standardization and regulation cultures. The relevant standardization landscape is a complex one, particularly if new energy vectors such as hydrogen are taken into account. The growing interest for the deployment of (hybrid) electric drive technology has given rise to specific standardization issues, which are being tackled by specific technical teams. Currently enforced rating standards to evaluate the performance of ground vehicles must in fact be adapted to hybrid electric vehicles, with particular problems arising when considering plug-in hybrids which use both fuel and mains electricity. New standards are needed to evaluate the potential benefits of the hybrid systems against the future vehicle requirements within specifically applicable bounds and regulations. The paper highlights current evolutions in the field, discussing the ongoing work programme of international standardization committees (particularly ISO TC22 SC21 and IEC TC69), and more particularly the interaction between these committees. Special attention will be given to a number of pending issues such as the definition of reliable performance and energy consumption tests for plug-in hybrid vehicles with both fuel and electricity energy supply, the specific need for infrastructure standardization and the impact of the introduction of new technologies such as hydrogen on vehicle safety standardization. The paper will report on activities in this field, providing direct feedback from the international standardization shopfloor, and will recommend specific work areas for standardization, highlighting the potential interaction of ongoing international standardization activities. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Nonlinear Body Slip Angle Observer for Electric Vehicle Stability Control
World Electr. Veh. J. 2008, 2(4), 270-275; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj2040270 - 26 Dec 2008
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 225
Abstract
This paper proposes a nonlinear observer for Body Slip Angle (β) estimation, in which a nonlinear tire model is adopted for the observer design. A newly developed method to identify parameters of road surface friction coefficient (μ) is introduced [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a nonlinear observer for Body Slip Angle (β) estimation, in which a nonlinear tire model is adopted for the observer design. A newly developed method to identify parameters of road surface friction coefficient (μ) is introduced into this observer, which makes the observer adaptive to road condition changing. Simulations and field tests are conducted, where the feasibility of μ identification and effectiveness of the observer are checked, especially for nonlinear cornering situations. Full article
Open AccessArticle
High Voltage, Large Current Terminals for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Wire Harnesses
World Electr. Veh. J. 2008, 2(4), 264-269; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj2040264 - 26 Dec 2008
Viewed by 270
Abstract
In recent years, development of environment measure cars is an important theme of the earth environment protection and energy saving. Various kinds of hybrid electric vehicles increase the production rapidly. However, the vehicle price is one of the big themes for the hybrid [...] Read more.
In recent years, development of environment measure cars is an important theme of the earth environment protection and energy saving. Various kinds of hybrid electric vehicles increase the production rapidly. However, the vehicle price is one of the big themes for the hybrid electric vehicle’s growth. High voltage harnesses necessary to connect between hybrid units (inverter to motor, battery) that must be fitted in a limited vehicle space. Especially, high voltage and high current wire harnesses for hybrid electrical vehicle need thicker cross section and higher connection reliability in comparison with wires for 12V.
In this paper, we set our goal of the terminal which is proof against vehicle vibration and is possible to apply high and continuous current. We successfully selected the structure and the material and developed the terminal at low cost, which is proof against vehicle vibration and is able to pass over 100A current. The developed terminals are used in Lexus GS450h. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Fuel Consumption Test Method for 4WD HEVs – On a Necessity of Double Axis Chassis Dynamometer Test –
World Electr. Veh. J. 2008, 2(4), 253-263; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj2040253 - 26 Dec 2008
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 209
Abstract
Concerns regarding global climate change have caused the transportation sector to look for alternatives to petroleum as a fuel for vehicles of all types. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) have been recognized as being particularly efficient for urban traffic use. In the last few [...] Read more.
Concerns regarding global climate change have caused the transportation sector to look for alternatives to petroleum as a fuel for vehicles of all types. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) have been recognized as being particularly efficient for urban traffic use. In the last few years, Four wheel drive (4WD) transmissions have been developed for heavy passenger vehicles. As these vehicles become more popular, there is a need for accurate fuel consumptions test methods. Clearly the most accurate fuel consumption measurements would be obtained by using dual axis dynamometers, but these systems are not always available. Single axis dynamometers are commonly used for evaluating fuel consumption, but these are inadequate for 4WD vehicles without adjustments to account for the uncertainty that will result from disabling one of the drive axles.
This paper describes a method for extrapolating fuel consumption results from single axle chassis dynamometer testing to estimate the fuel consumption of 4WD vehicles. A simple method is proposed that will allow reasonable estimates of fuel consumption for 4WD vehicles to be made from single axle dynamometer testing.
This paper also describes methods to reduce the uncertainty in 4WD chassis dynamometer testing by paying particular attention to road load, tire conditions and restraint characteristics. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Design and Implementation of On-Line Self-Tuning Control for PEM Fuel Cells
World Electr. Veh. J. 2008, 2(4), 242-252; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj2040242 - 26 Dec 2008
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 234
Abstract
This paper presents the modelling and real time implementation of PEM (polymer electrolyte membrane) fuel cell flow control. Flow control presents a critical performance requirement to achieving dynamic power responses for electric vehicle motor demands. However a fuel cell’s complex structure and reactant [...] Read more.
This paper presents the modelling and real time implementation of PEM (polymer electrolyte membrane) fuel cell flow control. Flow control presents a critical performance requirement to achieving dynamic power responses for electric vehicle motor demands. However a fuel cell’s complex structure and reactant requirements traditionally result in an unsatisfactory response to such dynamic loading instances. This in turn causes brief power losses associated with driving patterns such as acceleration and hill climbing. To improve the fuel cell’s dynamic response to such drive cycles, this paper presents new methodology for system identification and controller design. The fuel cell is modelled initially with established linear model and parameter estimation methods. The approach is then expanded to an on-line system identification LabVIEW programme to account for the non-linear and time varying characteristics. Based upon this identification process, a novel LabVIEW self-tuning PID controller is implemented in real time to control the response. The self-tuning controller continuously re-calculates the critical gain and period, and then adjusts the controller actions accordingly. Conclusions are then summarised from the results and future ongoing work is discussed briefly. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Alternative Road Vehicles, Electric Rail Systems, Short Flights: An Environmental Comparison
World Electr. Veh. J. 2008, 2(4), 236-241; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj2040236 - 26 Sep 2008
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 294
Abstract
In a context of global warming, the energy-efficiency topic has never been as hot as it is now, especially as far as transportation is concerned. Road and rail transportation are both included in what currently is the main attempt to tackle climate change [...] Read more.
In a context of global warming, the energy-efficiency topic has never been as hot as it is now, especially as far as transportation is concerned. Road and rail transportation are both included in what currently is the main attempt to tackle climate change on a worldwide scale: the Kyoto protocol. The achievement of the objectives put forward in this international agreement might be reached thanks to the high energy efficiency of electric drives for both road and rail transportation. International aviation emissions however, have not been included in the targets of the Kyoto protocol. Nevertheless, as in some cases aviation competes with surface transport, the energy efficiencies and/or climate impacts of different alternative drives or transport modes for surface transport should be compared to (mainly short-haul and very short-haul) aviation.
In this paper the environmental relevance of a planned prohibition of very short-haul flights in Belgium is assessed. This is done through the case-study of an abandoned project to operate a 737-400 flight between the Belgian cities of Liège and Charleroi (75 km distance), before taking off to Casablanca, Morocco (approximately 2100 km from Charleroi). The emissions due to the Liège-Charleroi leg of the flight are compared to alternatives for passenger transport, such as road transport and rail transport. Concerning road transport, different alternatives (conventional, CNG, hybrid, electric drive cars and buses) will be considered. After an assessment of the different transfer possibilities, an evaluation of the most climate-friendly and energy efficient scenarios is performed. Moreover an estimation of the yearly CO2-equivalent savings is carried out. Full article
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