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Review

Choosing Kinase Inhibitors for Androgen Deprivation Therapy-Resistant Prostate Cancer

by 1,2,†, 1,2,†, 1, 1,* and 2,*
1
Department of General Surgery, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Hunan 410008, China
2
Department of Molecular Medicine, The Scripps Research Institute, Jupiter, FL 33459, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editors: Carmela Dell’Aversana and Hassan Bousbaa
Pharmaceutics 2022, 14(3), 498; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14030498
Received: 1 November 2021 / Revised: 26 January 2022 / Accepted: 22 February 2022 / Published: 24 February 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Therapy Resistance: Choosing Kinase Inhibitors)
Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is a systemic therapy for advanced prostate cancer (PCa). Although most patients initially respond to ADT, almost all cancers eventually develop castration resistance. Castration-resistant PCa (CRPC) is associated with a very poor prognosis, and the treatment of which is a serious clinical challenge. Accumulating evidence suggests that abnormal expression and activation of various kinases are associated with the emergence and maintenance of CRPC. Many efforts have been made to develop small molecule inhibitors to target the key kinases in CRPC. These inhibitors are designed to suppress the kinase activity or interrupt kinase-mediated signal pathways that are associated with PCa androgen-independent (AI) growth and CRPC development. In this review, we briefly summarize the roles of the kinases that are abnormally expressed and/or activated in CRPC and the recent advances in the development of small molecule inhibitors that target kinases for the treatment of CRPC. View Full-Text
Keywords: androgen deprivation therapy (ADT); castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC); kinase; kinase inhibitors; IκB kinase (IKK); TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1); PIM1 kinase; tumor progression locus 2 (Tpl2); NEK6 (a mitotic-related serine/threonine kinase); glycogen-synthase-kinase 3β (GSK-3β); T-LAK cell-originated protein kinase (TOPK); cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs); bromodomain (BRD)-containing kinases (BETs); aurora kinase A (AURKA); AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK); mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK); jun kinase (JNK); phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT; polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1); LIM-domain kinase-2 (LIMK2); the receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs); the non-receptor tyrosine kinases (NRTKs); phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase type 1α (PIP5K1α); sphingosine kinases (SKs); hexokinase; phosphofructokinase (PFK); riboflavin kinases (RFK); thymidine kinase; protein kinase A (PKA) androgen deprivation therapy (ADT); castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC); kinase; kinase inhibitors; IκB kinase (IKK); TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1); PIM1 kinase; tumor progression locus 2 (Tpl2); NEK6 (a mitotic-related serine/threonine kinase); glycogen-synthase-kinase 3β (GSK-3β); T-LAK cell-originated protein kinase (TOPK); cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs); bromodomain (BRD)-containing kinases (BETs); aurora kinase A (AURKA); AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK); mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK); jun kinase (JNK); phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT; polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1); LIM-domain kinase-2 (LIMK2); the receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs); the non-receptor tyrosine kinases (NRTKs); phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase type 1α (PIP5K1α); sphingosine kinases (SKs); hexokinase; phosphofructokinase (PFK); riboflavin kinases (RFK); thymidine kinase; protein kinase A (PKA)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhong, S.; Peng, S.; Chen, Z.; Chen, Z.; Luo, J.-L. Choosing Kinase Inhibitors for Androgen Deprivation Therapy-Resistant Prostate Cancer. Pharmaceutics 2022, 14, 498. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14030498

AMA Style

Zhong S, Peng S, Chen Z, Chen Z, Luo J-L. Choosing Kinase Inhibitors for Androgen Deprivation Therapy-Resistant Prostate Cancer. Pharmaceutics. 2022; 14(3):498. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14030498

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhong, Shangwei, Shoujiao Peng, Zihua Chen, Zhikang Chen, and Jun-Li Luo. 2022. "Choosing Kinase Inhibitors for Androgen Deprivation Therapy-Resistant Prostate Cancer" Pharmaceutics 14, no. 3: 498. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14030498

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