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The T-Cell Response to Type 2 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV)
Open AccessArticle

No Evidence for a Role for Antibodies during Vaccination-Induced Enhancement of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome

by 1,2,3,†, 4,†, 4,* and 1,3,*
1
Institute of Virology and Immunology (IVI), Sensemattstrasse 293, 3147 Mittelhäusern, Switzerland
2
Graduate School for Cellular and Biomedical Sciences, University of Bern, Freiestrasse 1, 3012 Bern, Switzerland
3
Department of Infectious Diseases and Pathobiology (DIP), Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, Länggassstrasse 122, 3012 Bern, Switzerland
4
Laboratory of Virology, Department of Virology, Parasitology and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Salisburylaan 133, 9820 Merelbeke, Belgium
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Viruses 2019, 11(9), 829; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11090829
Received: 29 July 2019 / Revised: 3 September 2019 / Accepted: 4 September 2019 / Published: 6 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Porcine Viruses 2019)
Vaccination is one of the most important tools to protect pigs against infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus 1 (PRRSV-1). Although neutralizing antibodies are considered to represent an important mechanism of protective immunity, anti-PRRSV antibodies, in particular at subneutralizing concentrations, have also been reported to exacerbate PRRSV infection, probably through FcγR-mediated uptake of antibody-opsonized PRRSV, resulting in enhanced infection of, and replication in, target cells. Therefore, we investigated this pathway using sera from an animal experiment in which vaccine-mediated enhancement of clinical symptoms was observed. Three groups of six pigs were vaccinated with an inactivated PRRSV vaccine based on the PRRSV-1 subtype 3 strain Lena and challenged after a single or a prime-boost immunization protocol, or injected with PBS. We specifically tested if sera obtained from these animals can enhance macrophage infections, viral shedding, or cytokine release at different dilutions. Neither the presence of neutralizing antibodies nor general anti-PRRSV antibodies, mediated an enhanced infection, increased viral release or cytokine production by macrophages. Taken together, our data indicate that the exacerbated disease was not caused by antibodies. View Full-Text
Keywords: PRRSV-1; inactivated vaccine; homologous challenge; in vivo; antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of disease; monocyte-derived macrophages PRRSV-1; inactivated vaccine; homologous challenge; in vivo; antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of disease; monocyte-derived macrophages
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Sautter, C.A.; Trus, I.; Nauwynck, H.; Summerfield, A. No Evidence for a Role for Antibodies during Vaccination-Induced Enhancement of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome. Viruses 2019, 11, 829.

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