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Comment published on 11 December 2019, see Viruses 2019, 11(12), 1147.
Article

Exposure to Hantavirus is a Risk Factor Associated with Kidney Diseases in Sri Lanka: A Cross Sectional Study

1
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya 20400, Sri Lanka
2
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8638, Japan
3
Graduate School of Infectious Diseases, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8638, Japan
4
Nephrology and Transplantation Unit, Teaching Hospital Kandy, Kandy 20000, Sri Lanka
5
Renal Clinic, District Hospital, Girandurukotte 90750, Sri Lanka
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2019, 11(8), 700; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11080700
Received: 31 May 2019 / Revised: 16 July 2019 / Accepted: 30 July 2019 / Published: 31 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hantaviruses)
Chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) imposes a substantial burden on public health in Sri Lankan agricultural communities. High seroprevalences of hantavirus have been reported in CKDu patients in several locations of Sri Lanka. We carried out a cross-sectional study followed by an unmatched case-control comparison in two geographically distinct areas of Sri Lanka, Girandurukotte (CKDu endemic) and Kandy (CKDu non-endemic) to determine whether exposure to hantaviruses is a potential risk factor in patients with kidney disease. An indirect immunofluorescent antibody assay using two antigens, Thailand orthohantavirus-infected and recombinant N protein-expressing Vero E6 cells, were used for serodiagnosis. Participants’ demographic and other socio-economic data were collected through a structured questionnaire. Fifty kidney disease patients and 270 controls from Kandy and 104 kidney disease patients and 242 controls from Girandurukotte were examined. Seropositivities were 50% and 17.4% in kidney patients and controls, respectively, in Girandurukotte, and they were 18% and 7% in Kandy. The odds of exposure to hantaviruses were higher for kidney disease patients than for controls in both Girandurukotte (OR:3.66, 95% CI:2.01 to 6.64) and Kandy (OR:2.64, 95% CI:1.07 to 6.54) in binary logistic regression models. According to statistical analysis, individuals exposed to hantaviruses had a higher risk of developing renal impairment. Therefore, hantavirus infection might be an important risk factor for development of kidney disease in Sri Lanka. View Full-Text
Keywords: Thailand orthohantavirus; tropical nephropathy; rodent Thailand orthohantavirus; tropical nephropathy; rodent
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sarathkumara, Y.D.; Gamage, C.D.; Lokupathirage, S.; Muthusinghe, D.S.; Nanayakkara, N.; Gunarathne, L.; Shimizu, K.; Tsuda, Y.; Arikawa, J.; Yoshimatsu, K. Exposure to Hantavirus is a Risk Factor Associated with Kidney Diseases in Sri Lanka: A Cross Sectional Study. Viruses 2019, 11, 700. https://doi.org/10.3390/v11080700

AMA Style

Sarathkumara YD, Gamage CD, Lokupathirage S, Muthusinghe DS, Nanayakkara N, Gunarathne L, Shimizu K, Tsuda Y, Arikawa J, Yoshimatsu K. Exposure to Hantavirus is a Risk Factor Associated with Kidney Diseases in Sri Lanka: A Cross Sectional Study. Viruses. 2019; 11(8):700. https://doi.org/10.3390/v11080700

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sarathkumara, Yomani D.; Gamage, Chandika D.; Lokupathirage, Sithumini; Muthusinghe, Devinda S.; Nanayakkara, Nishantha; Gunarathne, Lishanthe; Shimizu, Kenta; Tsuda, Yoshimi; Arikawa, Jiro; Yoshimatsu, Kumiko. 2019. "Exposure to Hantavirus is a Risk Factor Associated with Kidney Diseases in Sri Lanka: A Cross Sectional Study" Viruses 11, no. 8: 700. https://doi.org/10.3390/v11080700

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