Next Article in Journal
Metagenomic Next-Generation Sequencing Reveal Presence of a Novel Ungulate Bocaparvovirus in Alpacas
Next Article in Special Issue
Fast, Sensitive and Specific Detection of Thailand orthohantavirus and its Variants Using One-Step Real-Time Reverse-Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay
Previous Article in Journal
Rapid Detection of Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus (PPRV) Nucleic Acid Using a Novel Low-Cost Reverse Transcription Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (RT-LAMP) Assay for Future Use in Nascent PPR Eradication Programme
Previous Article in Special Issue
A Review of Hantavirus Research in Indonesia: Prevalence in Humans and Rodents, and the Discovery of Serang Virus
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Exposure to Hantavirus is a Risk Factor Associated with Kidney Diseases in Sri Lanka: A Cross Sectional Study

1
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya 20400, Sri Lanka
2
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8638, Japan
3
Graduate School of Infectious Diseases, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8638, Japan
4
Nephrology and Transplantation Unit, Teaching Hospital Kandy, Kandy 20000, Sri Lanka
5
Renal Clinic, District Hospital, Girandurukotte 90750, Sri Lanka
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2019, 11(8), 700; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11080700
Received: 31 May 2019 / Revised: 16 July 2019 / Accepted: 30 July 2019 / Published: 31 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hantaviruses)
  |  
PDF [939 KB, uploaded 6 August 2019]
  |     |  

Abstract

Chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) imposes a substantial burden on public health in Sri Lankan agricultural communities. High seroprevalences of hantavirus have been reported in CKDu patients in several locations of Sri Lanka. We carried out a cross-sectional study followed by an unmatched case-control comparison in two geographically distinct areas of Sri Lanka, Girandurukotte (CKDu endemic) and Kandy (CKDu non-endemic) to determine whether exposure to hantaviruses is a potential risk factor in patients with kidney disease. An indirect immunofluorescent antibody assay using two antigens, Thailand orthohantavirus-infected and recombinant N protein-expressing Vero E6 cells, were used for serodiagnosis. Participants’ demographic and other socio-economic data were collected through a structured questionnaire. Fifty kidney disease patients and 270 controls from Kandy and 104 kidney disease patients and 242 controls from Girandurukotte were examined. Seropositivities were 50% and 17.4% in kidney patients and controls, respectively, in Girandurukotte, and they were 18% and 7% in Kandy. The odds of exposure to hantaviruses were higher for kidney disease patients than for controls in both Girandurukotte (OR:3.66, 95% CI:2.01 to 6.64) and Kandy (OR:2.64, 95% CI:1.07 to 6.54) in binary logistic regression models. According to statistical analysis, individuals exposed to hantaviruses had a higher risk of developing renal impairment. Therefore, hantavirus infection might be an important risk factor for development of kidney disease in Sri Lanka. View Full-Text
Keywords: Thailand orthohantavirus; tropical nephropathy; rodent Thailand orthohantavirus; tropical nephropathy; rodent
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Sarathkumara, Y.D.; Gamage, C.D.; Lokupathirage, S.; Muthusinghe, D.S.; Nanayakkara, N.; Gunarathne, L.; Shimizu, K.; Tsuda, Y.; Arikawa, J.; Yoshimatsu, K. Exposure to Hantavirus is a Risk Factor Associated with Kidney Diseases in Sri Lanka: A Cross Sectional Study. Viruses 2019, 11, 700.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Viruses EISSN 1999-4915 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top