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Algorithms, Volume 11, Issue 8 (August 2018)

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Open AccessArticle DenseZDD: A Compact and Fast Index for Families of Sets
Algorithms 2018, 11(8), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/a11080128
Received: 31 May 2018 / Revised: 4 August 2018 / Accepted: 9 August 2018 / Published: 17 August 2018
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Abstract
In this article, we propose a succinct data structure of zero-suppressed binary decision diagrams (ZDDs). A ZDD represents sets of combinations efficiently and we can perform various set operations on the ZDD without explicitly extracting combinations. Thanks to these features, ZDDs have been
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In this article, we propose a succinct data structure of zero-suppressed binary decision diagrams (ZDDs). A ZDD represents sets of combinations efficiently and we can perform various set operations on the ZDD without explicitly extracting combinations. Thanks to these features, ZDDs have been applied to web information retrieval, information integration, and data mining. However, to support rich manipulation of sets of combinations and update ZDDs in the future, ZDDs need too much space, which means that there is still room to be compressed. The paper introduces a new succinct data structure, called DenseZDD, for further compressing a ZDD when we do not need to conduct set operations on the ZDD but want to examine whether a given set is included in the family represented by the ZDD, and count the number of elements in the family. We also propose a hybrid method, which combines DenseZDDs with ordinary ZDDs. By numerical experiments, we show that the sizes of our data structures are three times smaller than those of ordinary ZDDs, and membership operations and random sampling on DenseZDDs are about ten times and three times faster than those on ordinary ZDDs for some datasets, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Efficient Data Structures)
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Open AccessArticle Application of Angle Related Cost Function Optimization for Dynamic Path Planning Algorithm
Algorithms 2018, 11(8), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/a11080127
Received: 19 July 2018 / Revised: 9 August 2018 / Accepted: 9 August 2018 / Published: 15 August 2018
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Abstract
In recent years, Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) have developed a lot. More and more sensors and communication technologies (e.g., cloud computing) are being integrated into cars, which opens up a new design space for vehicular-based applications. In this paper, we present the Spatial
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In recent years, Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) have developed a lot. More and more sensors and communication technologies (e.g., cloud computing) are being integrated into cars, which opens up a new design space for vehicular-based applications. In this paper, we present the Spatial Optimized Dynamic Path Planning algorithm. Our contributions are, firstly, to enhance the effective of loading mechanism for road maps by dividing the connected sub-net, and building a spatial index; and secondly, to enhance the effect of the dynamic path planning by optimizing the search direction. We use the real road network and real-time traffic flow data of Karamay city to simulate the effect of our algorithm. Experiments show that our Spatial Optimized Dynamic Path Planning algorithm can significantly reduce the time complexity, and is better suited for use as a real-time navigation system. The algorithm can achieve superior real-time performance and obtain the optimal solution in dynamic path planning. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Robust Visual Tracking via Patch Descriptor and Structural Local Sparse Representation
Algorithms 2018, 11(8), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/a11080126
Received: 6 July 2018 / Revised: 8 August 2018 / Accepted: 11 August 2018 / Published: 15 August 2018
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Abstract
Appearance models play an important role in visual tracking. Effective modeling of the appearance of tracked objects is still a challenging problem because of object appearance changes caused by factors, such as partial occlusion, illumination variation and deformation, etc. In this paper, we
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Appearance models play an important role in visual tracking. Effective modeling of the appearance of tracked objects is still a challenging problem because of object appearance changes caused by factors, such as partial occlusion, illumination variation and deformation, etc. In this paper, we propose a tracking method based on the patch descriptor and the structural local sparse representation. In our method, the object is firstly divided into multiple non-overlapped patches, and the patch sparse coefficients are obtained by structural local sparse representation. Secondly, each patch is further decomposed into several sub-patches. The patch descriptors are defined as the proportion of sub-patches, of which the reconstruction error is less than the given threshold. Finally, the appearance of an object is modeled by the patch descriptors and the patch sparse coefficients. Furthermore, in order to adapt to appearance changes of an object and alleviate the model drift, an outlier-aware template update scheme is introduced. Experimental results on a large benchmark dataset demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Full article
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Open AccessArticle An Effective Data Transmission Algorithm Based on Social Relationships in Opportunistic Mobile Social Networks
Algorithms 2018, 11(8), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/a11080125
Received: 24 June 2018 / Revised: 9 August 2018 / Accepted: 13 August 2018 / Published: 14 August 2018
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Abstract
With the popularization of mobile communication equipment, human activities have an increasing impact on the structure of networks, and so the social characteristics of opportunistic networks become increasingly obvious. Opportunistic networks are increasingly used in social situations. However, existing routing algorithms are not
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With the popularization of mobile communication equipment, human activities have an increasing impact on the structure of networks, and so the social characteristics of opportunistic networks become increasingly obvious. Opportunistic networks are increasingly used in social situations. However, existing routing algorithms are not suitable for opportunistic social networks, because traditional opportunistic network routing does not consider participation in human activities, which usually causes a high ratio of transmission delay and routing overhead. Therefore, this research proposes an effective data transmission algorithm based on social relationships (ESR), which considers the community characteristics of opportunistic mobile social networks. This work uses the idea of the faction to divide the nodes in the network into communities, reduces the number of inefficient nodes in the community, and performs another contraction of the structure. Simulation results show that the ESR algorithm, through community transmission, is not only faster and safer, but also has lower transmission delay and routing overhead compared with the spray and wait algorithm, SCR algorithm and the EMIST algorithm. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Simhash-Based Integrative Features Extraction Algorithm for Malware Detection
Algorithms 2018, 11(8), 124; https://doi.org/10.3390/a11080124
Received: 9 July 2018 / Revised: 31 July 2018 / Accepted: 3 August 2018 / Published: 14 August 2018
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Abstract
In the malware detection process, obfuscated malicious codes cannot be efficiently and accurately detected solely in the dynamic or static feature space. Aiming at this problem, an integrative feature extraction algorithm based on simhash was proposed, which combines the static information e.g., API
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In the malware detection process, obfuscated malicious codes cannot be efficiently and accurately detected solely in the dynamic or static feature space. Aiming at this problem, an integrative feature extraction algorithm based on simhash was proposed, which combines the static information e.g., API (Application Programming Interface) calls and dynamic information (such as file, registry and network behaviors) of malicious samples to form integrative features. The experiment extracts the integrative features of some static information and dynamic information, and then compares the classification, time and obfuscated-detection performance of the static, dynamic and integrated features, respectively, by using several common machine learning algorithms. The results show that the integrative features have better time performance than the static features, and better classification performance than the dynamic features, and almost the same obfuscated-detection performance as the dynamic features. This algorithm can provide some support for feature extraction of malware detection. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Time Series Forecasting Using a Two-Level Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm: A Case Study of Maintenance Cost Data for Tunnel Fans
Algorithms 2018, 11(8), 123; https://doi.org/10.3390/a11080123
Received: 22 June 2018 / Revised: 2 August 2018 / Accepted: 7 August 2018 / Published: 13 August 2018
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Abstract
The aim of this study has been to develop a novel two-level multi-objective genetic algorithm (GA) to optimize time series forecasting data for fans used in road tunnels by the Swedish Transport Administration (Trafikverket). Level 1 is for the process of forecasting time
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The aim of this study has been to develop a novel two-level multi-objective genetic algorithm (GA) to optimize time series forecasting data for fans used in road tunnels by the Swedish Transport Administration (Trafikverket). Level 1 is for the process of forecasting time series cost data, while level 2 evaluates the forecasting. Level 1 implements either a multi-objective GA based on the ARIMA model or a multi-objective GA based on the dynamic regression model. Level 2 utilises a multi-objective GA based on different forecasting error rates to identify a proper forecasting. Our method is compared with using the ARIMA model only. The results show the drawbacks of time series forecasting using only the ARIMA model. In addition, the results of the two-level model show the drawbacks of forecasting using a multi-objective GA based on the dynamic regression model. A multi-objective GA based on the ARIMA model produces better forecasting results. In level 2, five forecasting accuracy functions help in selecting the best forecasting. Selecting a proper methodology for forecasting is based on the averages of the forecasted data, the historical data, the actual data and the polynomial trends. The forecasted data can be used for life cycle cost (LCC) analysis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Efficient Model-Based Object Pose Estimation Based on Multi-Template Tracking and PnP Algorithms
Algorithms 2018, 11(8), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/a11080122
Received: 5 July 2018 / Revised: 6 August 2018 / Accepted: 10 August 2018 / Published: 12 August 2018
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Abstract
Three-Dimensional (3D) object pose estimation plays a crucial role in computer vision because it is an essential function in many practical applications. In this paper, we propose a real-time model-based object pose estimation algorithm, which integrates template matching and Perspective-n-Point (PnP) pose estimation
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Three-Dimensional (3D) object pose estimation plays a crucial role in computer vision because it is an essential function in many practical applications. In this paper, we propose a real-time model-based object pose estimation algorithm, which integrates template matching and Perspective-n-Point (PnP) pose estimation methods to deal with this issue efficiently. The proposed method firstly extracts and matches keypoints of the scene image and the object reference image. Based on the matched keypoints, a two-dimensional (2D) planar transformation between the reference image and the detected object can be formulated by a homography matrix, which can initialize a template tracking algorithm efficiently. Based on the template tracking result, the correspondence between image features and control points of the Computer-Aided Design (CAD) model of the object can be determined efficiently, thus leading to a fast 3D pose tracking result. Finally, the 3D pose of the object with respect to the camera is estimated by a PnP solver based on the tracked 2D-3D correspondences, which improves the accuracy of the pose estimation. Experimental results show that the proposed method not only achieves real-time performance in tracking multiple objects, but also provides accurate pose estimation results. These advantages make the proposed method suitable for many practical applications, such as augmented reality. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Stacked-GRU Based Power System Transient Stability Assessment Method
Algorithms 2018, 11(8), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/a11080121
Received: 24 July 2018 / Revised: 4 August 2018 / Accepted: 7 August 2018 / Published: 9 August 2018
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Abstract
With the interconnection between large power grids, the issue of security and stability has become increasingly prominent. At present, data-driven power system adaptive transient stability assessment methods have achieved excellent performances by balancing speed and accuracy, but the complicated construction and parameters are
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With the interconnection between large power grids, the issue of security and stability has become increasingly prominent. At present, data-driven power system adaptive transient stability assessment methods have achieved excellent performances by balancing speed and accuracy, but the complicated construction and parameters are difficult to obtain. This paper proposes a stacked-GRU (Gated Recurrent Unit)-based transient stability intelligent assessment method, which builds a stacked-GRU model based on time-dependent parameter sharing and spatial stacking. By using the time series data after power system failure, the offline training is performed to obtain the optimal parameters of stacked-GRU. When the application is online, it is assessed by framework of confidence. Basing on New England power system, the performance of proposed adaptive transient stability assessment method is investigated. Simulation results show that the proposed model realizes reliable and accurate assessment of transient stability and it has the advantages of short assessment time with less complex model structure to leave time for emergency control. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Probabilistic Interval-Valued Hesitant Fuzzy Information Aggregation Operators and Their Application to Multi-Attribute Decision Making
Algorithms 2018, 11(8), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/a11080120
Received: 9 July 2018 / Revised: 27 July 2018 / Accepted: 28 July 2018 / Published: 6 August 2018
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Abstract
Based on the probabilistic interval-valued hesitant fuzzy information aggregation operators, this paper investigates a novel multi-attribute group decision making (MAGDM) model to address the serious loss of information in a hesitant fuzzy information environment. Firstly, the definition of probabilistic interval-valued hesitant fuzzy set
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Based on the probabilistic interval-valued hesitant fuzzy information aggregation operators, this paper investigates a novel multi-attribute group decision making (MAGDM) model to address the serious loss of information in a hesitant fuzzy information environment. Firstly, the definition of probabilistic interval-valued hesitant fuzzy set will be introduced, and then, using Archimedean norm, some new probabilistic interval-valued hesitant fuzzy operations are defined. Secondly, based on these operations, the generalized probabilistic interval-valued hesitant fuzzy ordered weighted averaging (GPIVHFOWA) operator, and the generalized probabilistic interval-valued hesitant fuzzy ordered weighted geometric (GPIVHFOWG) operator are proposed, and their desirable properties are discussed. We further study their common forms and analyze the relationship among these proposed operators. Finally, a new probabilistic interval-valued hesitant fuzzy MAGDM model is constructed, and the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed model are verified by using an example of supplier selection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algorithms for Decision Making)
Open AccessArticle An Opportunistic Network Routing Algorithm Based on Cosine Similarity of Data Packets between Nodes
Algorithms 2018, 11(8), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/a11080119
Received: 6 July 2018 / Revised: 26 July 2018 / Accepted: 2 August 2018 / Published: 6 August 2018
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Abstract
The mobility of nodes leads to dynamic changes in topology structure, which makes the traditional routing algorithms of a wireless network difficult to apply to the opportunistic network. In view of the problems existing in the process of information forwarding, this paper proposed
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The mobility of nodes leads to dynamic changes in topology structure, which makes the traditional routing algorithms of a wireless network difficult to apply to the opportunistic network. In view of the problems existing in the process of information forwarding, this paper proposed a routing algorithm based on the cosine similarity of data packets between nodes (cosSim). The cosine distance, an algorithm for calculating the similarity between text data, is used to calculate the cosine similarity of data packets between nodes. The data packet set of nodes are expressed in the form of vectors, thereby facilitating the calculation of the similarity between the nodes. Through the definition of the upper and lower thresholds, the similarity between the nodes is filtered according to certain rules, and finally obtains a plurality of relatively reliable transmission paths. Simulation experiments show that compared with the traditional opportunistic network routing algorithm, such as the Spray and Wait (S&W) algorithm and Epidemic algorithm, the cosSim algorithm has a better transmission effect, which can not only improve the delivery ratio, but also reduce the network transmission delay and decline the routing overhead. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Sliding Suffix Tree
Algorithms 2018, 11(8), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/a11080118
Received: 20 June 2018 / Revised: 20 July 2018 / Accepted: 25 July 2018 / Published: 3 August 2018
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Abstract
We consider a sliding window W over a stream of characters from some alphabet of constant size. We want to look up a pattern in the current sliding window content and obtain all positions of the matches. We present an indexed version of
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We consider a sliding window W over a stream of characters from some alphabet of constant size. We want to look up a pattern in the current sliding window content and obtain all positions of the matches. We present an indexed version of the sliding window, based on a suffix tree. The data structure of size Θ(|W|) has optimal time queries Θ(m+occ) and amortized constant time updates, where m is the length of the query string and occ is its number of occurrences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Efficient Data Structures)
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Open AccessArticle Research of the Vibration Source Tracking in Phase-Sensitive Optical Time-Domain Reflectometry Signals Based by Image Processing Method
Algorithms 2018, 11(8), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/a11080117
Received: 8 July 2018 / Revised: 23 July 2018 / Accepted: 31 July 2018 / Published: 2 August 2018
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Abstract
This paper aims to improve the source tracking efficiency of distributed vibration signals generated by phase-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometry (Φ-OTDR). Considering the two dimensions (time and length) of Φ-OTDR signals, the authors saved and processed these signals as images after particle filtering. The
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This paper aims to improve the source tracking efficiency of distributed vibration signals generated by phase-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometry (Φ-OTDR). Considering the two dimensions (time and length) of Φ-OTDR signals, the authors saved and processed these signals as images after particle filtering. The filtering method could save 0.1% of hard drive space without sacrificing the original features of the signals. Then, an integrated feature extraction method was proposed to further process the generated image. The method combines three individual extraction methods, namely, texture feature extraction, shape feature extraction and intrinsic feature extraction. Subsequently, the signal of each frame image was recognized to track the vibration source. To verify the effect of the proposed method, several experiments were carried out to compare it with popular and traditional approaches. The results show that: Hard drive space is greatly conserved by saving the distributed vibration signals as images; the proposed particle filter is a desirable way to screen the vibration signals for monitoring; the integrated feature extraction outperforms the individual extraction methods for texture features, shape features and intrinsic features; the proposed method has a better effect than other popular integrated feature extraction methods; and, the signal source tracking method has little impact on the positioning accuracy of the vibration source. The research findings provide important insights into the source tracking of Φ-OTDR signals. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Robust and Energy-Efficient Weighted Clustering Algorithm on Mobile Ad Hoc Sensor Networks
Algorithms 2018, 11(8), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/a11080116
Received: 12 May 2018 / Revised: 13 June 2018 / Accepted: 25 July 2018 / Published: 1 August 2018
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Abstract
In an Ad hoc sensor network, nodes have characteristics of limited battery energy, self-organization and low mobility. Due to the mobility and heterogeneity of the energy consumption in the hierarchical network, the cluster head and topology are changed dynamically. Therefore, topology control and
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In an Ad hoc sensor network, nodes have characteristics of limited battery energy, self-organization and low mobility. Due to the mobility and heterogeneity of the energy consumption in the hierarchical network, the cluster head and topology are changed dynamically. Therefore, topology control and energy consumption are growing to be critical in enhancing the stability and prolonging the lifetime of the network. In order to improve the survivability of Ad hoc network effectively, this paper proposes a new algorithm named the robust, energy-efficient weighted clustering algorithm (RE2WCA). For the homogeneous of the energy consumption; the proposed clustering algorithm takes the residual energy and group mobility into consideration by restricting minimum iteration times. In addition, a distributed fault detection algorithm and cluster head backup mechanism are presented to achieve the periodic and real-time topology maintenance to enhance the robustness of the network. The network is analyzed and the simulations are performed to compare the performance of this new clustering algorithm with the similar algorithms in terms of cluster characteristics, lifetime, throughput and energy consumption of the network. The result shows that the proposed algorithm provides better performance than others. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Color-Based Image Retrieval Using Proximity Space Theory
Algorithms 2018, 11(8), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/a11080115
Received: 30 June 2018 / Revised: 22 July 2018 / Accepted: 26 July 2018 / Published: 28 July 2018
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Abstract
The goal of object retrieval is to rank a set of images by their similarity compared with a query image. Nowadays, content-based image retrieval is a hot research topic, and color features play an important role in this procedure. However, it is important
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The goal of object retrieval is to rank a set of images by their similarity compared with a query image. Nowadays, content-based image retrieval is a hot research topic, and color features play an important role in this procedure. However, it is important to establish a measure of image similarity in advance. The innovation point of this paper lies in the following. Firstly, the idea of the proximity space theory is utilized to retrieve the relevant images between the query image and images of database, and we use the color histogram of an image to obtain the Top-ranked colors, which can be regard as the object set. Secondly, the similarity is calculated based on an improved dominance granule structure similarity method. Thus, we propose a color-based image retrieval method by using proximity space theory. To detect the feasibility of this method, we conducted an experiment on COIL-20 image database and Corel-1000 database. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework and its applications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Revisiting Chameleon Sequences in the Protein Data Bank
Algorithms 2018, 11(8), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/a11080114
Received: 10 July 2018 / Revised: 23 July 2018 / Accepted: 26 July 2018 / Published: 28 July 2018
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Abstract
The steady growth of the Protein Data Bank (PDB) suggests the periodic repetition of searches for sequences that form different secondary structures in different protein structures; these are called chameleon sequences. This paper presents a fast (nlog(n)) algorithm for
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The steady growth of the Protein Data Bank (PDB) suggests the periodic repetition of searches for sequences that form different secondary structures in different protein structures; these are called chameleon sequences. This paper presents a fast (nlog(n)) algorithm for such searches and presents the results on all protein structures in the PDB. The longest such sequence found consists of 20 residues. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Improved Parameter Identification Method for Envelope Current Signals Based on Windowed Interpolation FFT and DE Algorithm
Algorithms 2018, 11(8), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/a11080113
Received: 9 July 2018 / Revised: 24 July 2018 / Accepted: 25 July 2018 / Published: 27 July 2018
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Abstract
Envelope current signals are increasingly emerging in power systems, and their parameter identification is particularly necessary for accurate measurement of electrical energy. In order to analyze the envelope current signal, the harmonic parameters, as well as the envelope parameters, need to be calculated.
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Envelope current signals are increasingly emerging in power systems, and their parameter identification is particularly necessary for accurate measurement of electrical energy. In order to analyze the envelope current signal, the harmonic parameters, as well as the envelope parameters, need to be calculated. The interpolation fast Fourier transform (FFT) is a widely used approach which can estimate the signal frequency with high precision, but it cannot calculate the envelope parameters of the signal. Therefore, this paper proposes an improved method based on windowed interpolation FFT (WIFFT) and differential evolution (DE). The amplitude and phase parameters obtained through WIFFT and the envelope parameters estimated by the envelope analysis are optimized using the DE algorithm, which makes full use of the performance advantage of DE. The simulation results show that the proposed method can improve the accuracy of the harmonic parameters and the envelope parameter significantly. In addition, it has good anti-noise ability and high precision. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Novel Parallel Auto-Encoder Framework for Multi-Scale Data in Civil Structural Health Monitoring
Algorithms 2018, 11(8), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/a11080112
Received: 25 June 2018 / Revised: 20 July 2018 / Accepted: 24 July 2018 / Published: 27 July 2018
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Abstract
In this paper, damage detection/identification for a seven-storey steel structure is investigated via using the vibration signals and deep learning techniques. Vibration characteristics, such as natural frequencies and mode shapes are captured and utilized as input for a deep learning network while the
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In this paper, damage detection/identification for a seven-storey steel structure is investigated via using the vibration signals and deep learning techniques. Vibration characteristics, such as natural frequencies and mode shapes are captured and utilized as input for a deep learning network while the output vector represents the structural damage associated with locations. The deep auto-encoder with sparsity constraint is used for effective feature extraction for different types of signals and another deep auto-encoder is used to learn the relationship of different signals for final regression. The existing SAF model in a recent research study for the same problem processed all signals in one serial auto-encoder model. That kind of models have the following difficulties: (1) the natural frequencies and mode shapes are in different magnitude scales and it is not logical to normalize them in the same scale in building the models with training samples; (2) some frequencies and mode shapes may not be related to each other and it is not fair to use them for dimension reduction together. To tackle the above-mentioned problems for the multi-scale dataset in SHM, a novel parallel auto-encoder framework (Para-AF) is proposed in this paper. It processes the frequency signals and mode shapes separately for feature selection via dimension reduction and then combine these features together in relationship learning for regression. Furthermore, we introduce sparsity constraint in model reduction stage for performance improvement. Two experiments are conducted on performance evaluation and our results show the significant advantages of the proposed model in comparison with the existing approaches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Discrete Algorithms and Discrete Problems in Machine Intelligence)
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Open AccessArticle A Weighted Histogram-Based Tone Mapping Algorithm for CT Images
Algorithms 2018, 11(8), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/a11080111
Received: 16 June 2018 / Revised: 16 July 2018 / Accepted: 20 July 2018 / Published: 25 July 2018
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Abstract
Computed Tomography (CT) images have a high dynamic range, which makes visualization challenging. Histogram equalization methods either use spatially invariant weights or limited kernel size due to the complexity of pairwise contribution calculation. We present a weighted histogram equalization-based tone mapping algorithm which
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Computed Tomography (CT) images have a high dynamic range, which makes visualization challenging. Histogram equalization methods either use spatially invariant weights or limited kernel size due to the complexity of pairwise contribution calculation. We present a weighted histogram equalization-based tone mapping algorithm which utilizes Fast Fourier Transform for distance-dependent contribution calculation and distance-based weights. The weights follow power-law without distance-based cut-off. The resulting images have good local contrast without noticeable artefacts. The results are compared to eight popular tone mapping operators. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Image De-Quantization Using Plate Bending Model
Algorithms 2018, 11(8), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/a11080110
Received: 21 June 2018 / Revised: 16 July 2018 / Accepted: 20 July 2018 / Published: 24 July 2018
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Abstract
Discretized image signals might have a lower dynamic range than the display. Because of this, false contours might appear when the image has the same pixel value for a larger region and the distance between pixel levels reaches the noticeable difference threshold. There
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Discretized image signals might have a lower dynamic range than the display. Because of this, false contours might appear when the image has the same pixel value for a larger region and the distance between pixel levels reaches the noticeable difference threshold. There have been several methods aimed at approximating the high bit depth of the original signal. Our method models a region with a bended plate model, which leads to the biharmonic equation. This method addresses several new aspects: the reconstruction of non-continuous regions when foreground objects split the area into separate regions; the incorporation of confidence about pixel levels, making the model tunable; and the method gives a physics-inspired way to handle local maximal/minimal regions. The solution of the biharmonic equation yields a smooth high-order signal approximation and handles the local maxima/minima problems. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Long Length Document Classification by Local Convolutional Feature Aggregation
Algorithms 2018, 11(8), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/a11080109
Received: 7 June 2018 / Revised: 17 July 2018 / Accepted: 20 July 2018 / Published: 24 July 2018
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Abstract
The exponential increase in online reviews and recommendations makes document classification and sentiment analysis a hot topic in academic and industrial research. Traditional deep learning based document classification methods require the use of full textual information to extract features. In this paper, in
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The exponential increase in online reviews and recommendations makes document classification and sentiment analysis a hot topic in academic and industrial research. Traditional deep learning based document classification methods require the use of full textual information to extract features. In this paper, in order to tackle long document, we proposed three methods that use local convolutional feature aggregation to implement document classification. The first proposed method randomly draws blocks of continuous words in the full document. Each block is then fed into the convolution neural network to extract features and then are concatenated together to output the classification probability through a classifier. The second model improves the first by capturing the contextual order information of the sampled blocks with a recurrent neural network. The third model is inspired by the recurrent attention model (RAM), in which a reinforcement learning module is introduced to act as a controller for selecting the next block position based on the recurrent state. Experiments on our collected four-class arXiv paper dataset show that the three proposed models all perform well, and the RAM model achieves the best test accuracy with the least information. Full article
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