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Open AccessArticle

Application of Ilmenite Mud Waste as an Addition to Concrete

Instytut Techniki Budowlanej, 00-611 Warsaw, Poland
Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, 00-637 Warsaw, Poland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2020, 13(4), 866;
Received: 19 January 2020 / Revised: 1 February 2020 / Accepted: 12 February 2020 / Published: 14 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Construction and Building Materials)
Storing waste in concrete instead of landfills is environmentally friendly and also might make concrete more sustainable if some part is replaced with cement. This article presents a new way of valorising hazardous waste, namely ilmenite MUD from the production of titanium dioxide, which is used as a reactive additive to concrete. In fact, there are currently no articles presenting the way of valorisation that is presented in this paper. The global annual production of MUD is estimated to be about 0.7 million tons. Valorisation is possible due to the additional rinsing and filtering in the factory, which also confirms the novelty of this article. In this operation, the most hazardous compounds are returned back to the factory process. Rinsed mud (RMUD) is a pozzolanic reactive material with the potential use as a substitute of a part of Portland cement in concrete and other cementitious binders, like siliceous fly ash (FA). The level of RMUD pozzolanic activity is as high as the activity of siliceous fly ash. Comparative tests of concretes containing RMUD and fly ash, such as compressive strength, bending strength and shrinkage, were conducted. The concrete containing RMUD reached almost 90% of compressive and 108% of bending strength after 28 days of curing, compared to FA concrete. The results presented in this article are very promising and might point to a new way of valorising ilmenite mud waste. View Full-Text
Keywords: ilmenite mud; waste; concrete; titanium dioxide ilmenite mud; waste; concrete; titanium dioxide
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Chyliński, F.; Kuczyński, K.; Łukowski, P. Application of Ilmenite Mud Waste as an Addition to Concrete. Materials 2020, 13, 866.

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