Next Article in Journal
A Comparative Study of Open and Closed Heat-Engines for Small-Scale CHP Applications
Next Article in Special Issue
Optimal Power Management Strategy for Energy Storage with Stochastic Loads
Previous Article in Journal
Parameter Sensitivity Analysis for Fractional-Order Modeling of Lithium-Ion Batteries
Previous Article in Special Issue
A Simple Operating Strategy of Small-Scale Battery Energy Storages for Energy Arbitrage under Dynamic Pricing Tariffs
Article Menu
Issue 3 (March) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Energies 2016, 9(3), 127;

Distributed Energy Storage Using Residential Hot Water Heaters

Engineering Department, Lancaster University, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4YW, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: William Holderbaum
Received: 28 December 2015 / Revised: 28 January 2016 / Accepted: 16 February 2016 / Published: 25 February 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Control of Energy Storage)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1254 KB, uploaded 25 February 2016]   |  


This paper proposes and analyses a new demand response technique for renewable energy regulation using smart hot water heaters that forecast water consumption at an individual dwelling level. Distributed thermal energy storage has many advantages, including high overall efficiency, use of existing infrastructure and a distributed nature. In addition, the use of a smart thermostatic controller enables the prediction of required water amounts and keeps temperatures at a level that minimises user discomfort while reacting to variations in the electricity network. Three cases are compared in this paper, normal operation, operation with demand response and operation following the proposed demand response mechanism that uses consumption forecasts. The results show that this technique can produce both up and down regulation, as well as increase water heater efficiency. When controlling water heaters without consumption forecast, the users experience discomfort in the form of hot water shortage, but after the full technique is applied, the shortage level drops to nearly the starting point. The amount of regulation power from a single dwelling is also discussed in this paper. View Full-Text
Keywords: demand side management (DSM); distributed thermal storage; forecasting; water heater demand side management (DSM); distributed thermal storage; forecasting; water heater

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Gelažanskas, L.; Gamage, K.A.A. Distributed Energy Storage Using Residential Hot Water Heaters. Energies 2016, 9, 127.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Energies EISSN 1996-1073 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top