An integrated energy system (IES) involving a large number of decision-makers causes problems of bad coordination between energy sub-networks and the IES and it is not able to fully consider the multi-energy complementarity among multiple decision-makers. In this context, firstly, this paper constructs an energy optimal dispatching model of an IES based on uncertain bilevel programming. The upper model takes the transformation matrix of energy hubs as the upper decision-maker, taking the minimum operation cost of the IES in the form of confidence as the objective function; the lower model takes each optimal operation plan of the electric power sub-network, the thermal energy sub-network, and the gas energy sub-network as the lower decision-makers, aiming at the operation economy of each sub-network and considering their operation as necessary constraints. Secondly, a firefly algorithm with chaotic search and an improved light intensity coefficient is designed to improve the proposed model. An empirical analysis was conducted on a pilot area of an integrated energy system in Hebei Province. The results show the following: (1) The typical daily operating cost of the integrated energy system in winter is lower than that in summer; (2) under the same load level, the typical winter and summer running costs of the integrated energy system are lower than that of the traditional microgrid; (3) compared with the particle swarm optimization algorithm, the improved firefly algorithm proposed in the paper has obvious advantages both in terms of running cost and solution time; and (4) when the confidence of the objective function and the constraints increases, the operating cost of various schemes also increase. The above results validate the effectiveness of the energy optimal dispatching model of the IES and the economy of the system operation under the multiple decision-maker hierarchy.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited