This study considers whether electric vehicles (EVs) can be exploited as a flexibility management strategy to stimulate investments in and operation of renewable electricity under stringent CO2
constraints in four regions with different conditions for renewable electricity (Sweden, Germany, the UK, and Spain). The study applies a cost-minimisation investment model and an electricity dispatch model of the European electricity system, assuming three types of charging strategies for EVs. The results show that vehicle-to-grid (V2G), i.e., the possibility to discharging the EV batteries back to grid, facilitates an increase in investments and generation from solar photovoltaics (PVs) compare to the scenario without EVs, in all regions except Sweden. Without the possibility to store electricity in EV batteries across different days, which is a technical limitation of this type of model, EVs increase the share of wind power by only a few percentage points in Sweden, even if Sweden is a region with good conditions for wind power. Full electrification of the road transport sector, including also dynamic power transfer for trucks and buses, would decrease the need for investments in peak power in all four regions by at least 50%, as compared to a scenario without EVs or with uncontrolled charging of EVs, provided that an optimal charging strategy and V2G are implemented for the passenger vehicles.
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