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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceReview

A Review of Particulate Number (PN) Emissions from Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Engines and Their Control Techniques

1
School of Energy and Power Engineering, Energy and Environment International Center, Beihang University, Beijing 100191, China
2
Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PJ, UK
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2018, 11(6), 1417; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11061417
Received: 25 April 2018 / Revised: 22 May 2018 / Accepted: 25 May 2018 / Published: 1 June 2018
Particulate Matter (PM) emissions from gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines, particularly Particle Number (PN) emissions, have been studied intensively in both academia and industry because of the adverse effects of ultrafine PM emissions on human health and other environmental concerns. GDI engines are known to emit a higher number of PN emissions (on an engine-out basis) than Port Fuel Injection (PFI) engines, due to the reduced mixture homogeneity in GDI engines. Euro 6 emission standards have been introduced in Europe (and similarly in China) to limit PN emissions from GDI engines. This article summarises the current state of research in GDI PN emissions (engine-out) including a discussion of PN formation, and the characteristics of PN emissions from GDI engines. The effect of key GDI engine operating parameters is analysed, including air-fuel ratio, ignition and injection timing, injection pressure, and EGR; in addition the effect of fuel composition on particulate emissions is explored, including the effect of oxygenate components such as ethanol. View Full-Text
Keywords: PM emissions; GDI engines; particulate; particle number; fuel effects; biofuels; oxygenates PM emissions; GDI engines; particulate; particle number; fuel effects; biofuels; oxygenates
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MDPI and ACS Style

Raza, M.; Chen, L.; Leach, F.; Ding, S. A Review of Particulate Number (PN) Emissions from Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Engines and Their Control Techniques. Energies 2018, 11, 1417.

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