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Energies 2018, 11(6), 1418; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11061418

Experimental Investigation of Static Stall Hysteresis and 3-Dimensional Flow Structures for an NREL S826 Wing Section of Finite Span

1
Section of Fluid Mechanics, Department of Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Lyngby, Denmark
2
Institute of Mechanics, Materials and Civil Engineering, Université catholique de Louvain, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium
3
Research Center En Aeronautique (Cenaero), 6041 Gosselies, Belgium
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 April 2018 / Revised: 21 May 2018 / Accepted: 30 May 2018 / Published: 1 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Collection Wind Turbines)
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Abstract

Flow characteristics of an S826 airfoil at different Reynolds numbers, ranging from 40,000–400,000 (based on airfoil chord length) and angles of attack from −10–25 degrees are thoroughly investigated in a low-speed wind tunnel. The airfoil’s lift and drag polars are first measured, and with a focus on pitching the airfoil in upstroke and downstroke orders, static stall hysteresis is identified in selected experiments at Reynolds numbers below 100,000 near the stall angle and subsequently investigated. Experiments using wire-generated free stream turbulence are conducted, and the hysteresis effects are shown to disappear when introducing a free stream turbulence of less than 2.5%. Further, spanwise flow is detected by comparing lift and drag values measured using both surface pressure integration at one cross section as well as integral force gauge measurement, and the surface oil flow visualization technique is subsequently used to study the 3D flow topologies formed on the airfoil. The formation of distinct stall cells on the suction side of the airfoil is observed at Reynolds numbers above 100,000 near the stall angle. By repeating the experiments, stall cells are proven to be reproduceable, although the identical geometries are necessarily not retained in abscence of surface impurities such as tapes. The effect of disturbances on the stall cells is investigated by utilizing roughness elements on the airfoil surface, and it is found that while such disturbances tend to change the shape of the stall cells, they do not contribute to the creation, nor destruction of the cells. Polar and visualisation measurements are also used to study flow separation, and it is observed that the separation location, as well as the laminar separation bubble, moves towards the leading edge when increasing the angle of attack. View Full-Text
Keywords: aerodynamics; flow measurement; surface oil flow visualization; stall cells; hysteresis aerodynamics; flow measurement; surface oil flow visualization; stall cells; hysteresis
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Sarlak, H.; Frère, A.; Mikkelsen, R.; Sørensen, J.N. Experimental Investigation of Static Stall Hysteresis and 3-Dimensional Flow Structures for an NREL S826 Wing Section of Finite Span. Energies 2018, 11, 1418.

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