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Article

Degradation and Detoxification of Chlorophenols with Different Structure by LAC-4 Laccase Purified from White-Rot Fungus Ganoderma lucidum

Hubei Key Laboratory of Genetic Regulation and Integrative Biology, School of Life Sciences, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079, China
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(13), 8150; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19138150
Received: 20 April 2022 / Revised: 18 June 2022 / Accepted: 21 June 2022 / Published: 2 July 2022
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Science and Engineering)
A laccase named LAC-4 was purified from Ganoderma lucidum. Firstly, the enzymatic properties of purified LAC-4 laccase, and the degradation of three chlorophenol pollutants 2,6-dichlorophenol (2,6-DCP), 2,3,6-trichlorophenol (2,3,6-TCP) and 3-chlorophenol (3-CP) by LAC-4 were systematically studied. LAC-4 had a strong ability for 2,6-DCP and 2,3,6-TCP degradation. The degradation ability of LAC-4 to 3-CP was significantly lower than that of 2,6-DCP and 2,3,6-TCP. LAC-4 also had a good degradation effect on the chlorophenol mixture (2,6-DCP + 2,3,6-TCP). The results of kinetics of degradation of chlorophenols by LAC-4 suggested that the affinity of LAC-4 for 2,6-DCP was higher than 2,3,6-TCP. The catalytic efficiency and the catalytic rate of LAC-4 on 2,6-DCP were also significantly higher than 2,3,6-TCP. During degradation of 2,6-DCP and 2,3,6-TCP, LAC-4 had a strong tolerance for high concentrations of different metal salts (such as MnSO4, ZnSO4, Na2SO4, MgSO4, CuSO4, K2SO4) and organic solvents (such as ethylene glycol and glycerol). Next, detoxification of chlorophenols by LAC-4 was also systematically explored. LAC-4 treatment had a strong detoxification ability and a good detoxification effect on the phytotoxicity of individual chlorophenols (2,6-DCP, 2,3,6-TCP) and chlorophenol mixtures (2,6-DCP + 2,3,6-TCP). The phytotoxicities of 2,6-DCP, 2,3,6-TCP and chlorophenol mixtures (2,6-DCP + 2,3,6-TCP) treated with LAC-4 were considerably reduced or eliminated. Finally, we focused on the degradation mechanisms and pathways of 2,6-DCP and 2,3,6-TCP degradation by LAC-4. The putative transformation pathway of 2,6-DCP and 2,3,6-TCP catalyzed by laccase was revealed for the first time. The free radicals formed by LAC-4 oxidation of 2,6-DCP and 2,3,6-TCP produced dimers through polymerization. LAC-4 catalyzed the polymerization of 2,6-DCP and 2,3,6-TCP, forming dimer products. LAC-4 catalyzed 2,6-DCP into two main products: 2,6-dichloro-4-(2,6-dichlorophenoxy) phenol and 3,3′,5,5′-tetrachloro-4,4′-dihydroxybiphenyl. LAC-4 catalyzed 2,3,6-TCP into two main products: 2,3,6-trichloro-4-(2,3,6-trichlorophenoxy) phenol and 2,2′,3,3′,5,5′-hexachloro-[1,1′-biphenyl]-4,4′-diol. View Full-Text
Keywords: laccase; chlorophenol; degradation; detoxification; phytotoxicity; degradation mechanisms laccase; chlorophenol; degradation; detoxification; phytotoxicity; degradation mechanisms
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MDPI and ACS Style

Deng, W.; Zhao, W.; Yang, Y. Degradation and Detoxification of Chlorophenols with Different Structure by LAC-4 Laccase Purified from White-Rot Fungus Ganoderma lucidum. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 8150. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19138150

AMA Style

Deng W, Zhao W, Yang Y. Degradation and Detoxification of Chlorophenols with Different Structure by LAC-4 Laccase Purified from White-Rot Fungus Ganoderma lucidum. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022; 19(13):8150. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19138150

Chicago/Turabian Style

Deng, Wei, Wei Zhao, and Yang Yang. 2022. "Degradation and Detoxification of Chlorophenols with Different Structure by LAC-4 Laccase Purified from White-Rot Fungus Ganoderma lucidum" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 19, no. 13: 8150. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19138150

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