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Review

Cytokine Profile in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis Following Exercise: A Systematic Review of Randomized Clinical Trials

1
Centre for Sport and Exercise Sciences, Universiti Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
2
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
3
Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(13), 8151; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19138151
Received: 13 May 2022 / Revised: 29 June 2022 / Accepted: 30 June 2022 / Published: 2 July 2022
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is one of the most prevalent causes of nontraumatic neurological impairment in young adults. This review aims to determine the impact of exercise on cytokine and adipokine profile levels as inflammatory markers in MS patients across various exercise paradigms. We used specific keywords in PubMed, Web of Science, The Cochrane Library, and Scopus to find randomized clinical trials addressing the effects of physical activity and exercise training on inflammatory markers levels in MS patients. The majority of the research showed no considerable changes in IL-6 levels, while three studies reported declining levels after the intervention. Approximately half of the trials observed a change in TNF-α and IL-10 levels after exercise interventions, while the other half showed no meaningful changes. Other markers such as IL-17, IL-4, IL-12, adipokines, and BDNF showed fluctuations in levels. We found no universal agreement on the effects of different exercise training protocols on the serum level of inflammatory markers in patients with MS. More research is needed to fully identify the effects of exercise on cytokines in MS patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: multiple sclerosis; inflammatory markers; demyelinating autoimmune diseases; exercise; rehabilitation; cytokine; interleukins; tumor necrosis factor alpha multiple sclerosis; inflammatory markers; demyelinating autoimmune diseases; exercise; rehabilitation; cytokine; interleukins; tumor necrosis factor alpha
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MDPI and ACS Style

Najafi, P.; Hadizadeh, M.; Cheong, J.P.G.; Mohafez, H.; Abdullah, S. Cytokine Profile in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis Following Exercise: A Systematic Review of Randomized Clinical Trials. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 8151. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19138151

AMA Style

Najafi P, Hadizadeh M, Cheong JPG, Mohafez H, Abdullah S. Cytokine Profile in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis Following Exercise: A Systematic Review of Randomized Clinical Trials. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022; 19(13):8151. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19138151

Chicago/Turabian Style

Najafi, Parisa, Maryam Hadizadeh, Jadeera Phaik Geok Cheong, Hamidreza Mohafez, and Suhailah Abdullah. 2022. "Cytokine Profile in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis Following Exercise: A Systematic Review of Randomized Clinical Trials" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 19, no. 13: 8151. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19138151

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