Next Article in Journal
Humor Styles as New Resources in a Primary Preventive Perspective: Reducing Resistance to Change for Negotiation
Previous Article in Journal
‘Get a Fish’ vs. ‘Get a Fishing Skill’: Farmers’ Preferred Compensation Methods to Control Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollution
 
 
Article

Unemployment Trajectories and the Early Risk of Disability Pension among Young People with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Nationwide Study in Sweden

1
Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, P.O.B. 20, 00014 Helsinki, Finland
2
Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Division of Insurance Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
3
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Work Ability and Working Careers, P.O.B. 18, 00032 Helsinki, Finland
4
School of Educational Sciences and Psychology, University of Eastern Finland, P.O.B. 111, 80101 Joensuu, Finland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2486; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072486
Received: 20 March 2020 / Accepted: 2 April 2020 / Published: 5 April 2020
Depression and anxiety are associated with unemployment and disability pension, while autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is less studied. We aimed to first identify unemployment trajectories among young adults with and without ASD, and then to examine their social determinants. Finally, we used the trajectories as determinants for subsequent disability pension. We used a population-based cohort, including 814 people who were 19–35 years old, not on disability pension, and who had their ASD diagnosis between 2001 and 2009. A matched reference population included 22,013 people with no record of mental disorders. Unemployment follow-up was the inclusion year and four years after. Disability pension follow-up started after the unemployment follow-up and continued through 2013. We identified three distinctive trajectories of unemployment during the follow-up: (1) low, then sharply increasing (9%,) (2) low (reference, 67%), and (3) high then slowly decreasing (24%). People with ASD had higher odds of belonging belong to the trajectory groups 1 (OR 2.53, 95% CI 2.02–3.18) and 3 (OR 3.60, 95% CI 3.08–4.19). However, the mean number of unemployment days was relatively low in all groups. A disability pension was a rare event in the cohort, although memberships to groups 1 and 3 were associated with the risk of a future disability pension. More knowledge is needed about factors facilitating participation in paid employment among people with ASD. View Full-Text
Keywords: autism spectrum disorder; risk factor epidemiology; population-based; trajectory analysis; person-oriented methods; unemployment; disability pension; social determinants autism spectrum disorder; risk factor epidemiology; population-based; trajectory analysis; person-oriented methods; unemployment; disability pension; social determinants
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Lallukka, T.; Mittendorfer-Rutz, E.; Ervasti, J.; Alexanderson, K.; Virtanen, M. Unemployment Trajectories and the Early Risk of Disability Pension among Young People with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Nationwide Study in Sweden. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 2486. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072486

AMA Style

Lallukka T, Mittendorfer-Rutz E, Ervasti J, Alexanderson K, Virtanen M. Unemployment Trajectories and the Early Risk of Disability Pension among Young People with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Nationwide Study in Sweden. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(7):2486. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072486

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lallukka, Tea, Ellenor Mittendorfer-Rutz, Jenni Ervasti, Kristina Alexanderson, and Marianna Virtanen. 2020. "Unemployment Trajectories and the Early Risk of Disability Pension among Young People with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Nationwide Study in Sweden" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 7: 2486. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072486

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop