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Open AccessArticle

Hope in Hospitalized Patients with Terminal Cancer

Chair of Internal Medicine and Department of Internal Medicine in Nursing, Medical University, Chodźki 7 Street, 20-093 Lublin, Poland
The Pontifical University of John Paul II, Kanonicza 25, 31-002 Kraków, Poland
Chair of Humanities, Medical University Staszica 4-6 Street, 20-081 Lublin, Poland
Department of Medical Informatics and Statistics with E-learning Lab, Medical University, Jaczewskiego 4 Street, 20-090 Lublin, Poland
Department of Health Psychology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Jagiellonian University, Collegium Medicum, Kopernika 25 Street, 31-501 Kraków, Poland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(20), 3867;
Received: 12 September 2019 / Revised: 6 October 2019 / Accepted: 10 October 2019 / Published: 12 October 2019
: Hope is of great importance for patients diagnosed with cancer, especially those that are terminally ill. The diagnosis often puts an end to the realization of personal, social, and professional goals. The aim of this study was to characterize the hope of hospitalized patients diagnosed with cancer in the terminal phase of the disease. The research tool used in the study was Block’s hope test (NCN-36; NCN- Nadzieja Chorych Nowotworowych - Hope of Cancer Patients), designed for patients with life-threatening diseases. The results showed that the patients were characterized by a moderate level of global hope. The highest levels of hope were noted in the spiritual-religious area and the lowest levels of hope concerned curing the disease. Patients exhibited varied levels of hope and varied internal structures of hope. They presented four different types of hope: optimistic, moderate, religious, and weak. Optimistic hope was found most frequently in patients diagnosed with a terminal phase of cancer, while weak hope was represented by the smallest group of these patients.
Keywords: hope; cancer; terminal disease; care hope; cancer; terminal disease; care
MDPI and ACS Style

Baczewska, B.; Block, B.; Kropornicka, B.; Niedzielski, A.; Malm, M.; Zwolak, A.; Makara-Studzińska, M. Hope in Hospitalized Patients with Terminal Cancer. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 3867.

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