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Open AccessArticle

The Effects of Brain Breaks on Motives of Participation in Physical Activity among Primary School Children in Malaysia

1
Exercise and Sport Science Programme, School of Health Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan 16150, Malaysia
2
Unit of Biostatistics and Research Methodology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan 16150, Malaysia
3
Department of Life Sciences, Brunel University, London UB8 3PH, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(13), 2331; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16132331
Received: 19 June 2019 / Revised: 27 June 2019 / Accepted: 27 June 2019 / Published: 2 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Healthy Lifestyle)
Brain breaks is a physical activity (PA) video designed for school settings that is used to stimulate student’s health and learning. The purpose of this study is to measure the effects of brain breaks on motives of participation in PA among primary school children in Malaysia. Purposive sampling was used to divide 159 male and 176 female students aged 10 to 11 years old, mean (standard deviation (SD)) = 10.51 (0.50), from two schools in Kelantan, Malaysia into intervention (n = 183) and control (n = 152) groups. Students undertook brain breaks activities on school days (five minutes per session) spread out for a period of four months. Mixed factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test the students’ motives of participation in PA for pre-, mid-, and post-tests using the Physical Activity and Leisure Motivation Scale-Youth-Malay (PALMS-Y-M). Mixed factorial ANOVA showed significant changes in enjoyment, F(2, 392) = 8.720, p-value (ηp2) = 0.001 (0.043); competitiveness, F(2, 195) = 4.364, p-value (ηp2) = 0.014 (0.043); appearance, F(2, 392) = 5.709, p-value (ηp2) = 0.004 (0.028); and psychological condition, F(2, 392) = 4.376, p-value (ηp2) = 0.013 (0.022), whereas mastery, affiliation, and physical condition were not significant (p < 0.05). Further post-hoc analysis revealed a significant downward trend in the control group (p < 0.05). Brain breaks is successful in maintaining students’ motives for PA in four of the seven factors. View Full-Text
Keywords: Brain Breaks®; physical activity; motivation; children; primary school Brain Breaks®; physical activity; motivation; children; primary school
MDPI and ACS Style

Hajar, M.S.; Rizal, H.; Kueh, Y.C.; Muhamad, A.S.; Kuan, G. The Effects of Brain Breaks on Motives of Participation in Physical Activity among Primary School Children in Malaysia. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 2331.

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