Next Article in Journal
Evaluating Ecosystem Services Supply and Demand Dynamics and Ecological Zoning Management in Wuhan, China
Next Article in Special Issue
Child-to-Parent Violence: Attitude towards Authority, Social Reputation and School Climate
Previous Article in Journal
The Effects of Brain Breaks on Motives of Participation in Physical Activity among Primary School Children in Malaysia
Previous Article in Special Issue
Relationship between Parental Socialization, Emotional Symptoms, and Academic Performance during Adolescence: The Influence of Parents’ and Teenagers’ Gender
 
 
Article

A Third Emerging Stage for the Current Digital Society? Optimal Parenting Styles in Spain, the United States, Germany, and Brazil

1
Department of Methodology of the Behavioral Sciences, University of Valencia, Av. Blasco Ibanez, 21, 46010 Valencia, Spain
2
Department of Developmental and Educational Psychology, University of Valencia, Av. Blasco Ibanez, 21, 46010 Valencia, Spain
3
Department of Psychology, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Avda de los Alfares 44, 16071 Cuenca, Spain
4
Department of Economics and Social Work, University of Trier, Universitätsring 15, D-54296 Trier, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(13), 2333; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16132333
Received: 15 June 2019 / Revised: 29 June 2019 / Accepted: 30 June 2019 / Published: 2 July 2019
We propose a new paradigm with three historical stages for an optimal parenting style (i.e., indulgent parenting style), which extends the traditional paradigm of only two stages (i.e., authoritarian and authoritative parenting styles). The three stages concur, at the same time, in different environments, context, and cultures. We studied the third stage for optimal parent–child relationships through the offspring’s personal and social well-being, with four adolescent samples from 11 to 19 years old (52.2% girls) from Spain (n = 689), the United States (n = 488), Germany (n = 606), and Brazil (n = 672). The offspring’s personal well-being was measured through self-esteem (academic, social, emotional, family, and physical), while social well-being was measured with the internalization of self-transcendence (universalism and benevolence) and conservation values (security, conformity, and tradition). The parent–child parenting style was measured through parental warmth and strictness, and the adolescents’ parents were classified into one of four groups (indulgent, authoritarian, authoritative, and neglectful). Remarkably, the greatest personal well-being was found for adolescents raised with higher parental warmth and lower parental strictness (i.e., indulgent), and the greatest social well-being was found for adolescents raised with higher parental warmth (i.e., indulgent and authoritative; p < 0.05 for all countries). Consistently, poorer personal well-being and social well-being were associated with less parental warmth (i.e., authoritarian and neglectful). Findings suggest that the parent–child relationships analyzed have a common pattern associated with personal and social well-being that coincide with a proposed third stage. View Full-Text
Keywords: family socialization; parental warmth; parental strictness; parenting styles family socialization; parental warmth; parental strictness; parenting styles
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Garcia, F.; Serra, E.; Garcia, O.F.; Martinez, I.; Cruise, E. A Third Emerging Stage for the Current Digital Society? Optimal Parenting Styles in Spain, the United States, Germany, and Brazil. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 2333. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16132333

AMA Style

Garcia F, Serra E, Garcia OF, Martinez I, Cruise E. A Third Emerging Stage for the Current Digital Society? Optimal Parenting Styles in Spain, the United States, Germany, and Brazil. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019; 16(13):2333. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16132333

Chicago/Turabian Style

Garcia, Fernando, Emilia Serra, Oscar F. Garcia, Isabel Martinez, and Edie Cruise. 2019. "A Third Emerging Stage for the Current Digital Society? Optimal Parenting Styles in Spain, the United States, Germany, and Brazil" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 16, no. 13: 2333. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16132333

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop