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Open AccessArticle

Coffee Consumption and the Risk of Thyroid Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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Department of Preventive Medicine, College of Medicine, Chosun University, Gwangju 61452, Korea
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Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Chosun University, Gwangju 61452, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(2), 129; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14020129
Received: 8 November 2016 / Revised: 20 January 2017 / Accepted: 25 January 2017 / Published: 27 January 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Global Health)
An inverse association has been reported between coffee consumption and the risk of several cancers. However, the association between coffee and thyroid cancer is controversial. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the association between coffee consumption and the risk of thyroid cancer through a systematic review and meta-analysis. Published studies were examined from PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Central, and the reference lists of the retrieved articles. The summary odds ratio (OR) for the association between coffee consumption was categorized as highest versus lowest consumption, and thyroid cancer risk was calculated using a fixed effects model. Subgroup analyses by study design, geographic location, source of controls, and adjusted variables were performed. A total of 1039 thyroid cancer cases and 220,816 controls were identified from five case-control studies and two cohort studies. The summary OR for the association between coffee consumption and thyroid cancer risk was 0.88 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.71–1.07). There was no significant heterogeneity among the study results (I² = 0%, p = 0.79). However, the beneficial effect of coffee consumption on thyroid cancer was found only in hospital-based case-control studies (OR= 0.59, 95% CI= 0.37–0.93). There was no significant association between coffee consumption and thyroid cancer risk according to our meta-analysis results. These findings should be interpreted with caution because of potential biases and confounding variables. Further prospective studies with a larger number of cases are encouraged to confirm these results. View Full-Text
Keywords: case-control studies; coffee; cohort studies; meta-analysis; review; thyroid neoplasms case-control studies; coffee; cohort studies; meta-analysis; review; thyroid neoplasms
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MDPI and ACS Style

Han, M.A.; Kim, J.H. Coffee Consumption and the Risk of Thyroid Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 129.

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