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Review

Exploring Chemical Diversity of Phorbas Sponges as a Source of Novel Lead Compounds in Drug Discovery

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Department of Pharmacy, University of Naples Federico II, Via D. Montesano, 49, 80131 Naples, Italy
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Instituto de Química de Produtos Naturais Walter Mors, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Av. Carlos Chagas Filho, 373, Rio de Janeiro 21941-599, Brazil
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Department of Marine Biotechnology, Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale, 80125 Naples, Italy
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Departamento de Química Orgânica, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Outeiro de São João Batista s/n, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro 24020-141, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Bill J. Baker
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(12), 667; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19120667
Received: 24 October 2021 / Revised: 23 November 2021 / Accepted: 23 November 2021 / Published: 26 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women in Science: Their Contribution in Marine Drugs)
Porifera, commonly referred to as marine sponges, are acknowledged as major producers of marine natural products (MNPs). Sponges of the genus Phorbas have attracted much attention over the years. They are widespread in all continents, and several structurally unique compounds have been identified from this species. Terpenes, mainly sesterterpenoids, are the major secondary metabolites isolated from Phorbas species, even though several alkaloids and steroids have also been reported. Many of these compounds have presented interesting biological activities. Particularly, Phorbas sponges have been demonstrated to be a source of cytotoxic metabolites. In addition, MNPs exhibiting cytostatic, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory activities have been isolated and structurally characterized. This review provides an overview of almost 130 secondary metabolites from Phorbas sponges and their biological activities, and it covers the literature since the first study published in 1993 until November 2021, including approximately 60 records. The synthetic routes to the most interesting compounds are briefly outlined. View Full-Text
Keywords: Phorbas; marine sponges; marine natural products (MNPs); alkaloids; terpenoids; macrolides; cytotoxic metabolites; antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities Phorbas; marine sponges; marine natural products (MNPs); alkaloids; terpenoids; macrolides; cytotoxic metabolites; antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities
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MDPI and ACS Style

Caso, A.; da Silva, F.B.; Esposito, G.; Teta, R.; Sala, G.D.; Cavalcanti, L.P.A.N.; Valverde, A.L.; Martins, R.C.C.; Costantino, V. Exploring Chemical Diversity of Phorbas Sponges as a Source of Novel Lead Compounds in Drug Discovery. Mar. Drugs 2021, 19, 667. https://doi.org/10.3390/md19120667

AMA Style

Caso A, da Silva FB, Esposito G, Teta R, Sala GD, Cavalcanti LPAN, Valverde AL, Martins RCC, Costantino V. Exploring Chemical Diversity of Phorbas Sponges as a Source of Novel Lead Compounds in Drug Discovery. Marine Drugs. 2021; 19(12):667. https://doi.org/10.3390/md19120667

Chicago/Turabian Style

Caso, Alessia, Fernanda B. da Silva, Germana Esposito, Roberta Teta, Gerardo D. Sala, Laura P.A.N. Cavalcanti, Alessandra L. Valverde, Roberto C.C. Martins, and Valeria Costantino. 2021. "Exploring Chemical Diversity of Phorbas Sponges as a Source of Novel Lead Compounds in Drug Discovery" Marine Drugs 19, no. 12: 667. https://doi.org/10.3390/md19120667

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