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Marine Rare Actinomycetes: A Promising Source of Structurally Diverse and Unique Novel Natural Products

1
School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Technology & Environment, The University of the South Pacific, Laucala Campus, Private Mail Bag, Suva, Republic of Fiji
2
Laboratory of Microbiology, Wageningen University & Research, Stippeneng 4, 6708 WE Wageningen, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(5), 249; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17050249
Received: 7 March 2019 / Revised: 18 April 2019 / Accepted: 23 April 2019 / Published: 26 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Bacteria as Sources of Bioactive Compounds)
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Abstract

Rare actinomycetes are prolific in the marine environment; however, knowledge about their diversity, distribution and biochemistry is limited. Marine rare actinomycetes represent a rather untapped source of chemically diverse secondary metabolites and novel bioactive compounds. In this review, we aim to summarize the present knowledge on the isolation, diversity, distribution and natural product discovery of marine rare actinomycetes reported from mid-2013 to 2017. A total of 97 new species, representing 9 novel genera and belonging to 27 families of marine rare actinomycetes have been reported, with the highest numbers of novel isolates from the families Pseudonocardiaceae, Demequinaceae, Micromonosporaceae and Nocardioidaceae. Additionally, this study reviewed 167 new bioactive compounds produced by 58 different rare actinomycete species representing 24 genera. Most of the compounds produced by the marine rare actinomycetes present antibacterial, antifungal, antiparasitic, anticancer or antimalarial activities. The highest numbers of natural products were derived from the genera Nocardiopsis, Micromonospora, Salinispora and Pseudonocardia. Members of the genus Micromonospora were revealed to be the richest source of chemically diverse and unique bioactive natural products. View Full-Text
Keywords: rare actinomycetes; marine actinobacteria; cultivation; natural products; bioactive compounds rare actinomycetes; marine actinobacteria; cultivation; natural products; bioactive compounds
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Subramani, R.; Sipkema, D. Marine Rare Actinomycetes: A Promising Source of Structurally Diverse and Unique Novel Natural Products. Mar. Drugs 2019, 17, 249.

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