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The Immune Activity of PT-Peptide Derived from Anti-Lipopolysaccharide Factor of the Swimming Crab Portunus trituberculatus Is Enhanced when Encapsulated in Milk-Derived Extracellular Vesicles

1
Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
2
Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
3
Doctoral Degree Program in Marine Biotechnology, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung 20224, Taiwan
4
Doctoral Degree Program in Marine Biotechnology, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan
5
Department of Aquaculture, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung 20224, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(5), 248; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17050248
Received: 14 March 2019 / Revised: 15 April 2019 / Accepted: 24 April 2019 / Published: 26 April 2019
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Abstract

PT-peptide is derived from the anti-lipopolysaccharide factor of the swimming crab Portunus trituberculatus. The peptide, consisting of 34 amino acids, contains a lipopolysaccharide binding domain. In this study, we investigated the effect of PT-peptide encapsulated in raw milk-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs), designated as EVs-PT peptide, on immune regulation. The results showed that raw milk-derived EVs efficaciously delivered the PT-peptide into monocytes and elevated immune activity, including reactive oxygen species level, superoxide anion production, and phagocytosis. PT-peptide and EVs-PT peptide also elevated the secretion of cytokines, such as interferon-γ, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α in human monocytic THP-1 cells. These results suggest that the PT-peptide could be developed as an immune stimulator. View Full-Text
Keywords: antimicrobial peptide; Portunus trituberculatus; Anti-lipopolysaccharide factor; extracellular vesicles; THP-1 cells; immune stimulator antimicrobial peptide; Portunus trituberculatus; Anti-lipopolysaccharide factor; extracellular vesicles; THP-1 cells; immune stimulator
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Lee, B.-H.; Chen, B.-R.; Huang, C.-T.; Lin, C.-H. The Immune Activity of PT-Peptide Derived from Anti-Lipopolysaccharide Factor of the Swimming Crab Portunus trituberculatus Is Enhanced when Encapsulated in Milk-Derived Extracellular Vesicles. Mar. Drugs 2019, 17, 248.

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