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Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(11), 426; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16110426

Carotenoid Profiling of a Red Seaweed Pyropia yezoensis: Insights into Biosynthetic Pathways in the Order Bangiales

1
Graduate School of Fisheries Sciences, Hokkaido University, Hakodate 041-8611, Japan
2
Faculty of Fisheries Sciences, Hokkaido University, Hakodate 041-8611, Japan
3
Laboratory of Organic Chemistry for Life Science, Kobe Pharmaceutical University, Kobe 658-8558, Japan
4
Research Institute for Production Development, 15 Shimogamo, Morimoto Cho, Sakyoku, Kyoto 606-0805, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 October 2018 / Revised: 27 October 2018 / Accepted: 30 October 2018 / Published: 1 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Collection Marine Carotenoids)
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Abstract

Carotenoids are natural pigments that contribute to light harvesting and photo-protection in photosynthetic organisms. In this study, we analyzed the carotenoid profiles, including mono-hydroxy and epoxy-carotenoids, in the economically valuable red seaweed Pyropia yezoensis, to clarify the detailed biosynthetic and metabolic pathways in the order Bangiales. P. yezoensis contained lutein, zeaxanthin, α-carotene, and β-carotene, as major carotenoids in both the thallus and conchocelis stages. Monohydroxy intermediate carotenoids for the synthesis of lutein with an ε-ring from α-carotene, α-cryptoxanthin (β,ε-caroten-3’-ol), and zeinoxanthin (β,ε-caroten-3-ol) were identified. In addition, β-cryptoxanthin, an intermediate in zeaxanthin synthesis from β-carotene, was also detected. We also identified lutein-5,6-epoxide and antheraxanthin, which are metabolic products of epoxy conversion from lutein and zeaxanthin, respectively, by LC-MS and 1H-NMR. This is the first report of monohydroxy-carotenoids with an ε-ring and 5,6-epoxy-carotenoids in Bangiales. These results provide new insights into the biosynthetic and metabolic pathways of carotenoids in red seaweeds. View Full-Text
Keywords: Pyropia yezoensis; α-cryptoxanthin; zeinoxanthin; lutein-5,6-epoxide; antheraxanthin; carotenoid synthesis pathway; red seaweed Pyropia yezoensis; α-cryptoxanthin; zeinoxanthin; lutein-5,6-epoxide; antheraxanthin; carotenoid synthesis pathway; red seaweed
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Koizumi, J.; Takatani, N.; Kobayashi, N.; Mikami, K.; Miyashita, K.; Yamano, Y.; Wada, A.; Maoka, T.; Hosokawa, M. Carotenoid Profiling of a Red Seaweed Pyropia yezoensis: Insights into Biosynthetic Pathways in the Order Bangiales. Mar. Drugs 2018, 16, 426.

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