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Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(11), 427; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16110427

Astaxanthin Prevents Human Papillomavirus L1 Protein Binding in Human Sperm Membranes

1
Department of Molecular Medicine-Biological Chemistry, University of Padova, 35131 Padova, Italy
2
Department of Women’s and Chilren’s Health, University of Padova, 35131 Padova, Italy
3
Department of Medicine-Endocrinology, University of Padova, 35131 Padova, Italy
4
Department of Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Sciences, University of Padova, 35131 Padova, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 September 2018 / Revised: 31 October 2018 / Accepted: 1 November 2018 / Published: 2 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Collection Marine Carotenoids)
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Abstract

Astaxanthin (Asta), red pigment of the carotenoid family, is known for its anti-oxidant, anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, and anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we evaluated the effects of Asta on isolated human sperm in the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 capsid protein, L1. Sperm, purified by gradient separation, were treated with HPV16-L1 in both a dose and time-dependent manner in the absence or presence of 30 min-Asta pre-incubation. Effects of HPV16-L1 alone after Asta pre-incubation were evaluated by rafts (CTB) and Lyn dislocation, Tyr-phosphorylation (Tyr-P) of the head, percentages of acrosome-reacted cells (ARC) and endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Sperm membranes were also analyzed for the HPV16-L1 content. Results show that HPV16-L1 drastically reduced membrane rearrangement with percentage of sperm showing head CTB and Lyn displacement decreasing from 72% to 15.8%, and from 63.1% to 13.9%, respectively. Accordingly, both Tyr-P of the head and ARC decreased from 68.4% to 10.2%, and from 65.7% to 14.6%, respectively. Asta pre-incubation prevented this drop and restored values of the percentage of ARC up to 40.8%. No alteration was found in either the ROS generation curve or sperm motility. In conclusion, Asta is able to preserve sperm by reducing the amount of HPV16-L1 bound onto membranes. View Full-Text
Keywords: human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16); astaxanthin (Asta); acrosome reaction; cholera toxin subunit B (CTB); L1 protein human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16); astaxanthin (Asta); acrosome reaction; cholera toxin subunit B (CTB); L1 protein
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Donà, G.; Andrisani, A.; Tibaldi, E.; Brunati, A.M.; Sabbadin, C.; Armanini, D.; Ambrosini, G.; Ragazzi, E.; Bordin, L. Astaxanthin Prevents Human Papillomavirus L1 Protein Binding in Human Sperm Membranes. Mar. Drugs 2018, 16, 427.

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