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Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(11), 425; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16110425

Suboptimal Temperature Acclimation Affects Kennedy Pathway Gene Expression, Lipidome and Metabolite Profile of Nannochloropsis salina during PUFA Enriched TAG Synthesis

1
Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003, USA
2
Chemical Analysis and Instrumentation Laboratory, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003, USA
3
Department of Economics, Applied Statistics and International Business, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 September 2018 / Revised: 17 October 2018 / Accepted: 28 October 2018 / Published: 1 November 2018
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Abstract

In humans, dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are involved in therapeutic processes such as prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, neuropsychiatric disorders, and dementia. We examined the physiology, PUFA accumulation and glycerol lipid biosynthesis in the marine microalga Nannochloropsis salina in response to constant suboptimal temperature (<20 °C). As expected, N. salina exhibited significantly reduced growth rate and photosynthetic activity compared to optimal cultivation temperature. Total fatty acid contents were not significantly elevated at reduced temperatures. Cultures grown at 5 °C had the highest quantity of eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) (C20:5n3) and the lowest growth rate. Additionally, we monitored broadband lipid composition to model the occurrence of metabolic alteration and remodeling for various lipid pools. We focused on triacylglycerol (TAG) with elevated PUFA content. TAGs with EPA at all three acyl positions were higher at a cultivation temperature of 15 °C. Furthermore, monogalactosyldiacylglycerol and digalactosyldiacylglycerol, which are polar lipids associated with chloroplast membranes, decreased with reduced cultivation temperatures. Moreover, gene expression analysis of key genes involved in Kennedy pathway for de novo TAG biosynthesis revealed bimodal variations in transcript level amongst the temperature treatments. Collectively, these results show that Nannochloropsis salina is a promising source of PUFA containing lipids. View Full-Text
Keywords: Nannochloropsis salina; cold stress; fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis; polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), eicosapentanoic acid (EPA); Kennedy pathway; lipidomics; metabolomics; lipid remodeling Nannochloropsis salina; cold stress; fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis; polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), eicosapentanoic acid (EPA); Kennedy pathway; lipidomics; metabolomics; lipid remodeling
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Gill, S.S.; Willette, S.; Dungan, B.; Jarvis, J.M.; Schaub, T.; VanLeeuwen, D.M.; St. Hilaire, R.; Holguin, F.O. Suboptimal Temperature Acclimation Affects Kennedy Pathway Gene Expression, Lipidome and Metabolite Profile of Nannochloropsis salina during PUFA Enriched TAG Synthesis. Mar. Drugs 2018, 16, 425.

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