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Current Issues in Molecular Biology is published by MDPI from Volume 43 Issue 1 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence, and they are hosted by MDPI on mdpi.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Caister Press.

Curr. Issues Mol. Biol., Volume 29, Issue 1 (December 2018) – 4 articles

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701 KiB  
Review
Snapshot: Targeting Macrophages as a Candidate for Tissue Regeneration
by Jing Zhang, Yang Yang, Zhi Yang, Tian Li and Fulin Chen
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2018, 29(1), 37-48; https://doi.org/10.21775/cimb.029.037 - 30 Apr 2018
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 467
Abstract
Macrophages are a specific mononuclear cell group abundant in almost every organ of higher animals. This group is a pivotal part of the immune system and is involved in immune responses against exogenous antigen invasion. Recently, accumulating evidence has demonstrated that macrophages participate [...] Read more.
Macrophages are a specific mononuclear cell group abundant in almost every organ of higher animals. This group is a pivotal part of the immune system and is involved in immune responses against exogenous antigen invasion. Recently, accumulating evidence has demonstrated that macrophages participate in wound repair and tissue regeneration. In this review, we will first introduce the influences of regeneration after injury in various tissues and organs among macrophage-depleted animal models. Second, the possible relationship between macrophages and reparation capacities will be discussed. Finally, we provide a general idea about the roles of macrophages in the injury- regeneration process and then discuss the current challenges and prospects of their clinical application. The information compiled here may be useful for regenerative research and may promote macrophages as a therapeutic target in regenerative medicine. Full article
1015 KiB  
Review
Horizontal Gene Transfer in Thermus spp.
by Alba Blesa, Beate Averhoff and José Berenguer
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2018, 29(1), 23-36; https://doi.org/10.21775/cimb.029.023 - 12 Apr 2018
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 588
Abstract
The small amount of genetic content in thermophiles generally limits their adaptability to environmental changes. In Thermus spp., very active horizontal gene transfer (HGT) mechanisms allow the rapid spread of strain-specific adaptive gene modules among the entire population. Constitutive expression of a rather [...] Read more.
The small amount of genetic content in thermophiles generally limits their adaptability to environmental changes. In Thermus spp., very active horizontal gene transfer (HGT) mechanisms allow the rapid spread of strain-specific adaptive gene modules among the entire population. Constitutive expression of a rather particular and highly efficient DNA transport apparatus (DTA) is at the center of this HGT-mediated enhanced adaptability. The function of the DTA is dependent on the integrity and longevity of the extracellular DNA (eDNA) being transformed, which can be improved by the production of extracellular vesicles (EV) through lysis of a fraction of the population. The DTA must also contend with the recipient cell's defensive barriers, namely restriction enzymes, a panoply of CRISPR-Cas systems, and the argonaute-like protein TtAgo, which may be bypassed by transjugation, a new class of bidirectional transformation-dependent conjugation. Efficient transjugation depends on the presence of the ICETh1, an integrative and conjugative element which promotes simultaneous, generalized DNA transfer from several points in the genome. Transjugation shows preference for genes located within a megaplasmid replicon, where the main strain-specific adaptive modules are located. Contribution of transformation, vesicle-mediated eDNAs, and transjugation to HGT in this genus is discussed. Full article
5261 KiB  
Review
Horizontal Gene Transfers in Mycoplasmas (Mollicutes)
by C. Citti, E. Dordet-Frisoni, L.X. Nouvel, CH Kuo and E. Baranowski
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2018, 29(1), 3-22; https://doi.org/10.21775/cimb.029.003 - 12 Apr 2018
Cited by 49 | Viewed by 1047
Abstract
The class Mollicutes (trivial name "mycoplasma") is composed of wall-less bacteria with reduced genomes whose evolution was long thought to be only driven by gene losses. Recent evidences of massive horizontal gene transfer (HGT) within and across species provided a new frame to [...] Read more.
The class Mollicutes (trivial name "mycoplasma") is composed of wall-less bacteria with reduced genomes whose evolution was long thought to be only driven by gene losses. Recent evidences of massive horizontal gene transfer (HGT) within and across species provided a new frame to understand the successful adaptation of these minimal bacteria to a broad range of hosts. Mobile genetic elements are being identified in a growing number of mycoplasma species, but integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) are emerging as pivotal in HGT. While sharing common traits with other bacterial ICEs, such as their chromosomal integration and the use of a type IV secretion system to mediate horizontal dissemination, mycoplasma ICEs (MICEs) revealed unique features: their chromosomal integration is totally random and driven by a DDE recombinase related to the Mutator-like superfamily. Mycoplasma conjugation is not restricted to ICE transmission, but also involves the transfer of large chromosomal fragments that generates progenies with mosaic genomes, nearly every position of chromosome being mobile. Mycoplasmas have thus developed efficient ways to gain access to a considerable reservoir of genetic resources distributed among a vast number of species expanding the concept of minimal cell to the broader context of flowing information. Full article
74 KiB  
Editorial
Editorial: ICE and Small
by Adam P. Roberts
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2018, 29(1), 1-2; https://doi.org/10.21775/cimb.029.001 - 12 Apr 2018
Viewed by 331
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