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Sensors, Volume 8, Issue 9 (September 2008) , Pages 5229-6124

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Open AccessArticle
Spectral-Based Blind Image Restoration Method for Thin TOMBO Imagers
Sensors 2008, 8(9), 6108-6124; https://doi.org/10.3390/s8096108
Received: 1 July 2008 / Revised: 7 September 2008 / Accepted: 8 September 2008 / Published: 26 September 2008
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 8115 | PDF Full-text (733 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With the recent advances in microelectronic fabrication technology, it becomes now possible to fabricate thin imagers, less than half a millimeter thick. Dubbed TOMBO (an acronym for thin observation module by bound optics), a thin camera-on-a-chip integrates micro-optics and photo-sensing elements, together with [...] Read more.
With the recent advances in microelectronic fabrication technology, it becomes now possible to fabricate thin imagers, less than half a millimeter thick. Dubbed TOMBO (an acronym for thin observation module by bound optics), a thin camera-on-a-chip integrates micro-optics and photo-sensing elements, together with advanced processing circuitry, all on a single silicon chip. Modeled after the compound-eye found in insects and many other arthropods, the TOMBO imager captures simultaneously a mosaic of low resolution images. In this paper, we describe and analyze a novel spectral-based blind algorithm that enables the restoration of a high resolution image from the captured low resolution images.The proposed blind restoration method does not require prior information about the imaging system nor the original scene. Furthermore, it alleviates the need for conventional de-shading and rearrangement processing techniques. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can restore images for SNER lower than 3dB. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated High-performance Imagers)
Open AccessReview
BioMEMS –Advancing the Frontiers of Medicine
Sensors 2008, 8(9), 6077-6107; https://doi.org/10.3390/s8096077
Received: 28 August 2008 / Revised: 16 September 2008 / Accepted: 24 September 2008 / Published: 26 September 2008
Cited by 36 | Viewed by 8480 | PDF Full-text (549 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Biological and medical application of micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS) is currently seen as an area of high potential impact. Integration of biology and microtechnology has resulted in the development of a number of platforms for improving biomedical and pharmaceutical technologies. This review provides a general [...] Read more.
Biological and medical application of micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS) is currently seen as an area of high potential impact. Integration of biology and microtechnology has resulted in the development of a number of platforms for improving biomedical and pharmaceutical technologies. This review provides a general overview of the applications and the opportunities presented by MEMS in medicine by classifying these platforms according to their applications in the medical field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue BioMEMS)
Open AccessArticle
An Evaluation of Radarsat-1 and ASTER Data for Mapping Veredas (Palm Swamps)
Sensors 2008, 8(9), 6055-6076; https://doi.org/10.3390/s8096055
Received: 6 August 2008 / Revised: 10 September 2008 / Accepted: 22 September 2008 / Published: 26 September 2008
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 7828 | PDF Full-text (913 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Veredas (palm swamps) are wetland complexes associated with the Brazilian savanna (cerrado) that often represent the only available source of water for the ecosystem during the dry months. Their extent and condition are mainly unknown and their cartography is an essential [...] Read more.
Veredas (palm swamps) are wetland complexes associated with the Brazilian savanna (cerrado) that often represent the only available source of water for the ecosystem during the dry months. Their extent and condition are mainly unknown and their cartography is an essential issue for their protection. This research article evaluates some of the fine resolution satellite data both in the radar (Radarsat-1) and optical domain (ASTER) for the delineation and characterization of veredas. Two separate approaches are evaluated. First, given the known potential of Radarsat-1 images for wetland inventories, the automatic delineation of veredas is tested using only Radarsat-1 data and a Markov random fields region-based segmentation. In this case, to increase performance, processing is limited to a buffer zone around the river network. Then, characterization of their type is attempted using traditional classification methods of ASTER optical data combined with Radarsat-1 data. The automatic classification of Radarsat data yielded results with an overall accuracy between 62 and 69%, that proved reliable enough for delineating wide and very humid veredas. Scenes from the wet season and with a smaller angle of incidence systematically yielded better results. For the classification of the main vegetation types, better results (overall success of 78.8%) were obtained by using only the visible and near infrared (VNIR) bands of the ASTER image. Radarsat data did not bring any improvement to these classification results. In fact, when using solely the Radarsat data from two different angle of incidence and two different dates, the classification results were low (50.8%) but remained powerful for delineating the permanently moist riparian forest portion of the veredas with an accuracy better than 75% in most cases. These results are considered good given the width of some types often less than 50 m wide compared with the resolution of the images (12.5 - 15 m). Comparing the classification results with the Radarsat-generated delineation allows an understanding of the relation between synthetic aperture radar (SAR) backscattering and vegetation types of the veredas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR))
Open AccessReview
Sensors and Biosensors for the Determination of Small Molecule Biological Toxins
Sensors 2008, 8(9), 6045-6054; https://doi.org/10.3390/s8096045
Received: 19 July 2008 / Revised: 3 September 2008 / Accepted: 5 September 2008 / Published: 26 September 2008
Cited by 38 | Viewed by 8067 | PDF Full-text (76 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The following review of sensors and biosensors focuses on the determination of commonly studied small molecule biological toxins, including mycotoxins and small molecule neurotoxins. Because of the high toxicity of small molecule toxins, an effective analysis technique for determining their toxicity is indispensable. [...] Read more.
The following review of sensors and biosensors focuses on the determination of commonly studied small molecule biological toxins, including mycotoxins and small molecule neurotoxins. Because of the high toxicity of small molecule toxins, an effective analysis technique for determining their toxicity is indispensable. Sensors and biosensors have emerged as sensitive and rapid techniques for toxicity analysis in the past decade. Several different sensors for the determination of mycotoxins and other small molecule neurotoxins have been reported in the literature, and many of these sensors such as tissue biosensors, enzyme sensors, optical immunosensors, electrochemical sensors, quartz crystal sensors, and surface plasmon resonance biosensors are reviewed in this paper. Sensors are a practical and convenient monitoring tool in the area of routine analysis, and their specificity, sensitivity, reproducibility and analysis stability should all be improved in future work. In addition, accuracy field portable sensing devices and multiplexing analysis devices will be important requirement for the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxin Sensors)
Open AccessArticle
Surface Heat Balance Analysis of Tainan City on March 6, 2001 Using ASTER and Formosat-2 Data
Sensors 2008, 8(9), 6026-6044; https://doi.org/10.3390/s8096026
Received: 1 September 2008 / Revised: 18 September 2008 / Accepted: 24 September 2008 / Published: 26 September 2008
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 9835 | PDF Full-text (2862 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The urban heat island phenomenon occurs as a mixed result of anthropogenic heat discharge, decreased vegetation, and increased artificial impervious surfaces. To clarify the contribution of each factor to the urban heat island, it is necessary to evaluate the surface heat balance. Satellite [...] Read more.
The urban heat island phenomenon occurs as a mixed result of anthropogenic heat discharge, decreased vegetation, and increased artificial impervious surfaces. To clarify the contribution of each factor to the urban heat island, it is necessary to evaluate the surface heat balance. Satellite remote sensing data of Tainan City, Taiwan, obtained from Terra ASTER and Formosat-2 were used to estimate surface heat balance in this study. ASTER data is suitable for analyzing heat balance because of the wide spectral range. We used Formosat-2 multispectral data to classify the land surface, which was used to interpolate some surface parameters for estimating heat fluxes. Because of the high spatial resolution of the Formosat-2 image, more roads, open spaces and small vegetation areas could be distinguished from buildings in urban areas; however, misclassifications of land cover in such areas using ASTER data would overestimate the sensible heat flux. On the other hand, the small vegetated areas detected from the Formosat-2 image slightly increased the estimation of latent heat flux. As a result, the storage heat flux derived from Formosat-2 is higher than that derived from ASTER data in most areas. From these results, we can conclude that the higher resolution land coverage map increases accuracy of the heat balance analysis. Storage heat flux occupies about 60 to 80% of the net radiation in most of the artificial surface areas in spite of their usages. Because of the homogeneity of the building roof materials, there is no contrast between the storage heat flux in business and residential areas. In sparsely vegetated urban areas, more heat is stored and latent heat is smaller than that in the forested suburbs. This result implies that density of vegetation has a significant influence in decreasing temperatures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Urban Environmental Monitoring)
Open AccessArticle
Fabrication of a Novel Conductometric Biosensor for Detecting Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Antibodies
Sensors 2008, 8(9), 6015-6025; https://doi.org/10.3390/s8096015
Received: 2 September 2008 / Revised: 18 September 2008 / Accepted: 22 September 2008 / Published: 26 September 2008
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 7269 | PDF Full-text (89 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Johne’s disease (JD) is one of the most costly bacterial diseases in cattle. In the U.S., economic losses from the disease have been estimated to exceed $1,500,000,000 per year, mainly from the effects of reduced milk production. Current diagnostic tests for JD are [...] Read more.
Johne’s disease (JD) is one of the most costly bacterial diseases in cattle. In the U.S., economic losses from the disease have been estimated to exceed $1,500,000,000 per year, mainly from the effects of reduced milk production. Current diagnostic tests for JD are laboratory based and many of those tests require specialized equipment and training. Development of rapid and inexpensive diagnostic assays, which are adapted for point-ofcare applications, would aid in the control of JD. In this study, a polyaniline (Pani)-based conductometric biosensor, in an immunomigration format, was fabricated for the detection of serum antibody (IgG) against the causal organism of JD, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Immobilized Mycobacterium avium purified proteins in the capture membrane were used to detect MAP IgG, previously bound with Pani/anti-bovine IgG* conjugate in the conjugate membrane. After detection, the Pani in the sandwiched captured complex bridges an electrical circuit between the silver electrodes, flanking the capture membrane. The electrical conductance, caused by Pani, was measured as drop in electrical resistance. Testing of the biosensor with known JD positive and negative serum samples demonstrated a significant difference in the mean resistance observed between the groups. This proof-of-concept study demonstrated that a conductometric biosensor could detect MAP IgG in 2 minutes. The biosensor’s speed of detection and the equipment involved would, among other things, support its application towards the various point-ofcare opportunities aimed at JD management and control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosensors for Point-of-Care Applications)
Open AccessArticle
Programming an Artificial Neural Network Tool for Spatial Interpolation in GIS - A Case Study for Indoor Radio Wave Propagation of WLAN
Sensors 2008, 8(9), 5996-6014; https://doi.org/10.3390/s8095996
Received: 31 July 2008 / Revised: 3 September 2008 / Accepted: 11 September 2008 / Published: 25 September 2008
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 8024 | PDF Full-text (536 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Wireless communication networks offer subscribers the possibilities of free mobility and access to information anywhere at any time. Therefore, electromagnetic coverage calculations are important for wireless mobile communication systems, especially in Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs). Before any propagation computation is performed, modeling [...] Read more.
Wireless communication networks offer subscribers the possibilities of free mobility and access to information anywhere at any time. Therefore, electromagnetic coverage calculations are important for wireless mobile communication systems, especially in Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs). Before any propagation computation is performed, modeling of indoor radio wave propagation needs accurate geographical information in order to avoid the interruption of data transmissions. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and spatial interpolation techniques are very efficient for performing indoor radio wave propagation modeling. This paper describes the spatial interpolation of electromagnetic field measurements using a feed-forward back-propagation neural network programmed as a tool in GIS. The accuracy of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and geostatistical Kriging were compared by adjusting procedures. The feedforward back-propagation ANN provides adequate accuracy for spatial interpolation, but the predictions of Kriging interpolation are more accurate than the selected ANN. The proposed GIS ensures indoor radio wave propagation model and electromagnetic coverage, the number, position and transmitter power of access points and electromagnetic radiation level. Pollution analysis in a given propagation environment was done and it was demonstrated that WLAN (2.4 GHz) electromagnetic coverage does not lead to any electromagnetic pollution due to the low power levels used. Example interpolated electromagnetic field values for WLAN system in a building of Yildiz Technical University, Turkey, were generated using the selected network architectures to illustrate the results with an ANN. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Electrochemical Assay of Human Islet Amyloid Polypeptide and Its Aggregation
Sensors 2008, 8(9), 5987-5995; https://doi.org/10.3390/s8095987
Received: 14 August 2008 / Revised: 11 September 2008 / Accepted: 22 September 2008 / Published: 25 September 2008
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 6164 | PDF Full-text (120 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Square wave voltammetry is used in this work to detect human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) by using the oxidized signal of the tyrosine residue in hIAPP. A detection limit of 1×10-6 M for hIAPP has been obtained. A kinetic study of the [...] Read more.
Square wave voltammetry is used in this work to detect human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) by using the oxidized signal of the tyrosine residue in hIAPP. A detection limit of 1×10-6 M for hIAPP has been obtained. A kinetic study of the aggregation process has been carried out according to the relationship between the anodic peak current in the square wave voltammograms of hIAPP and the incubation period. The results show that the nucleation starts in the first hour of incubation and then, during the next two hours, aggregation may occur rapidly. hIAPP can therefore be monitored with a label-free electrochemical method with low detection limit and high sensitivity. This electrochemical method can be also utilized to study the kinetics of hIAPP aggregation, and it may be also employed to study the conformational changes of the polypeptide. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Integrated Evaluation of Urban Development Suitability Based on Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques – A Case Study in Jingjinji Area, China
Sensors 2008, 8(9), 5975-5986; https://doi.org/10.3390/s8095975
Received: 27 July 2008 / Revised: 15 September 2008 / Accepted: 20 September 2008 / Published: 25 September 2008
Cited by 34 | Viewed by 10209 | PDF Full-text (220 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Correction | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Jingjinji area (namely Beijing, Tianjin and He Bei Province) is one of the three largest regional economic communities in China. Urban expansion has sped up in the past 20 years in this area due to the rapid economic and population growth. Evaluating the [...] Read more.
Jingjinji area (namely Beijing, Tianjin and He Bei Province) is one of the three largest regional economic communities in China. Urban expansion has sped up in the past 20 years in this area due to the rapid economic and population growth. Evaluating the landuse suitability for urban growth on a regional scale is an urgent need, because the most suitable areas and the most suitable scale of urban growth can thus be determined accordingly. In order to meet this requirement, remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) techniques were adopted, and an integrated evaluating model was developed supported by AHP method. The integrated urban development suitability index (UDSI) was calculated using this model. According to the UDSI result, the spatial distribution of urban development suitability and its driving forces were analyzed. Urban boundaries in 1995, 2000 and 2005, which were derived from Landsat TM/ETM+ satellite data, were overlaid on the UDSI map, and the suitable urban develop tendency in this area were discussed. The result of this study indicated that integrated evaluation of urban development could be conducted in an operational way using remote sensing data, GIS spatial analysis technique and AHP modeling method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Urban Environmental Monitoring)
Open AccessArticle
Color Changes of UHT Milk During Storage
Sensors 2008, 8(9), 5961-5974; https://doi.org/10.3390/s8095961
Received: 17 July 2008 / Revised: 19 September 2008 / Accepted: 20 September 2008 / Published: 25 September 2008
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 7632 | PDF Full-text (440 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study measurements of color parameters of UHT milk were performed, by using a MOM-color 100 photoelectric tristimulus colorimeter. Colors of UHT milk samples containing 3.2% and 1.6% milk fat, processed under industrial conditions, packed in polyethylene terephtalate (PET) based packages, and [...] Read more.
In this study measurements of color parameters of UHT milk were performed, by using a MOM-color 100 photoelectric tristimulus colorimeter. Colors of UHT milk samples containing 3.2% and 1.6% milk fat, processed under industrial conditions, packed in polyethylene terephtalate (PET) based packages, and stored for 0, 15, 30, 45, 60 and 90 days at ambient temperature (20±5°C) were examined. Results are shown in four different systems that define measurement of color parameters expressed in: CIE, CIE L*a*b*, Hünter and ANLAB – Adams Nickerson systems. Average value of mean reflectance of UHT milk determined in CIE system statistically is highly significantly changed, (p < 0.01) depending on duration of storaging, percentage of milk fat, as well as on the interaction of the mentioned factors. For the UHT milk with 1.6% milk fat statistically significant (p < 0.05) decrease of psychometric chroma b* occurs after 60 days, and for milk with 3.2% milk fat established on 45th day of storage. Full article
Open AccessReview
Developments and Applications of Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence Sensors Based on Micro- and Nanomaterials
Sensors 2008, 8(9), 5942-5960; https://doi.org/10.3390/s8095942
Received: 11 August 2008 / Revised: 22 September 2008 / Accepted: 23 September 2008 / Published: 25 September 2008
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 8740 | PDF Full-text (197 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A variety of recent developments and applications of electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) for sensors are described. While tris(2,2′-bipyridyl)-ruthenium(II) and luminol have dominated and continue to pervade the field of ECL-based sensors, recent work has focused on use of these lumophores with micro- and nanomaterials. [...] Read more.
A variety of recent developments and applications of electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) for sensors are described. While tris(2,2′-bipyridyl)-ruthenium(II) and luminol have dominated and continue to pervade the field of ECL-based sensors, recent work has focused on use of these lumophores with micro- and nanomaterials. It has also extended to inherently luminescent nanomaterials, such as quantum dots. Sensor configurations including microelectrode arrays and microfluidics are reviewed and, with the recent trend toward increased use of nanomaterials, special attention has been given to sensors which include thin films, nanoparticles and nanotubes. Applications of ECL labels and examples of label-free sensing that incorporate nanomaterials are also discussed. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Influence of Fluid Cell Design on the Frequency Response of AFM Microcantilevers in Liquid Media
Sensors 2008, 8(9), 5927-5941; https://doi.org/10.3390/s8095927
Received: 5 August 2008 / Revised: 10 September 2008 / Accepted: 12 September 2008 / Published: 25 September 2008
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 6803 | PDF Full-text (328 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A study of the frequency response of AFM microcantilevers in liquid media contained in a commercial fluid cell is presented. Such systems exhibit complicated dynamics which are often not well described by available theories. Their dynamic behavior has a direct effect on the [...] Read more.
A study of the frequency response of AFM microcantilevers in liquid media contained in a commercial fluid cell is presented. Such systems exhibit complicated dynamics which are often not well described by available theories. Their dynamic behavior has a direct effect on the use of the AFM in dynamic mode while imaging in liquid or while extracting the rheological properties of the fluid. We explore the issues related to the design of the cantilever holder/fluid cell and propose an approach for evaluating, minimizing and recognizing the ultimate limitations of commercial cantilever holders. A technique for estimating the frequency response spectrum of the fluid cell itself from experimental data is presented. This spectrum can then be used to evaluate whether or not the fluid cell is suited for the desired purpose. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Structural Simulation of a Bone-Prosthesis System of the Knee Joint
Sensors 2008, 8(9), 5897-5926; https://doi.org/10.3390/s8095897
Received: 14 July 2008 / Revised: 19 September 2008 / Accepted: 22 September 2008 / Published: 24 September 2008
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 7611 | PDF Full-text (2362 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In surgical knee replacement, the damaged knee joint is replaced with artificial prostheses. An accurate clinical evaluation must be carried out before applying knee prostheses to ensure optimal outcome from surgical operations and to reduce the probability of having long-term problems. Useful [...] Read more.
In surgical knee replacement, the damaged knee joint is replaced with artificial prostheses. An accurate clinical evaluation must be carried out before applying knee prostheses to ensure optimal outcome from surgical operations and to reduce the probability of having long-term problems. Useful information can be inferred from estimates of the stress acting onto the bone-prosthesis system of the knee joint. This information can be exploited to tailor the prosthesis to the patient’s anatomy. We present a compound system for pre-operative surgical planning based on structural simulation of the bone-prosthesis system, exploiting patient-specific data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medical Images Processing)
Open AccessArticle
Tomographic Imaging of a Forested Area By Airborne Multi-Baseline P-Band SAR
Sensors 2008, 8(9), 5884-5896; https://doi.org/10.3390/s8095884
Received: 30 May 2008 / Revised: 29 August 2008 / Accepted: 18 September 2008 / Published: 24 September 2008
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 7397 | PDF Full-text (9604 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In recent years, various attempts have been undertaken to obtain information about the structure of forested areas from multi-baseline synthetic aperture radar data. Tomographic processing of such data has been demonstrated for airborne L-band data but the quality of the focused tomographic images [...] Read more.
In recent years, various attempts have been undertaken to obtain information about the structure of forested areas from multi-baseline synthetic aperture radar data. Tomographic processing of such data has been demonstrated for airborne L-band data but the quality of the focused tomographic images is limited by several factors. In particular, the common Fourierbased focusing methods are susceptible to irregular and sparse sampling, two problems, that are unavoidable in case of multi-pass, multi-baseline SAR data acquired by an airborne system. In this paper, a tomographic focusing method based on the time-domain back-projection algorithm is proposed, which maintains the geometric relationship between the original sensor positions and the imaged target and is therefore able to cope with irregular sampling without introducing any approximations with respect to the geometry. The tomographic focusing quality is assessed by analysing the impulse response of simulated point targets and an in-scene corner reflector. And, in particular, several tomographic slices of a volume representing a forested area are given. The respective P-band tomographic data set consisting of eleven flight tracks has been acquired by the airborne E-SAR sensor of the German Aerospace Center (DLR). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR))
Open AccessArticle
A New Approach for Structural Monitoring of Large Dams with a Three-Dimensional Laser Scanner
Sensors 2008, 8(9), 5866-5883; https://doi.org/10.3390/s8095866
Received: 29 August 2008 / Revised: 19 September 2008 / Accepted: 23 September 2008 / Published: 24 September 2008
Cited by 73 | Viewed by 7966 | PDF Full-text (674 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Driven by progress in sensor technology, computer methods and data processing capabilities, 3D laser scanning has found a wide range of new application fields in recent years. Particularly, monitoring the static and dynamic behaviour of large dams has always been a topic of [...] Read more.
Driven by progress in sensor technology, computer methods and data processing capabilities, 3D laser scanning has found a wide range of new application fields in recent years. Particularly, monitoring the static and dynamic behaviour of large dams has always been a topic of great importance, due to the impact these structures have on the whole landscape where they are built. The main goal of this paper is to show the relevance and novelty of the laserscanning methodology developed, which incorporates different statistical and modelling approaches not considered until now. As a result, the methods proposed in this paper have provided the measurement and monitoring of the large “Las Cogotas” dam (Avila, Spain). Full article
Open AccessArticle
Determination of the Content of Heavy Metals in Pyrite Contaminated Soil and Plants
Sensors 2008, 8(9), 5857-5865; https://doi.org/10.3390/s8095857
Received: 3 July 2008 / Revised: 7 July 2008 / Accepted: 8 July 2008 / Published: 24 September 2008
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 6322 | PDF Full-text (68 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Determination of a pyrite contaminated soil texture, content of heavy metals in the soil and soil pH, was the aim in the investigation. Acidification of damaged soil was corrected by calcium carbonate. Mineral nutrients and organic matter (NPK, dung, earthworm cast, straw and [...] Read more.
Determination of a pyrite contaminated soil texture, content of heavy metals in the soil and soil pH, was the aim in the investigation. Acidification of damaged soil was corrected by calcium carbonate. Mineral nutrients and organic matter (NPK, dung, earthworm cast, straw and coal dust) were added to damaged soil. Afterwards, the soil was used for oat production. Determination of total heavy metal contents (Cu, Pb, Zn, Fe) in soil was performed by atomic absorption spectrofotometry. Plant material (stems, seeds ) was analysed, too. Total concentration of the heavy metals in the plant material were greater than in crop obtained in unaffected soil. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Fabrication of Pillar Shaped Electrode Arrays for Artificial Retinal Implants
Sensors 2008, 8(9), 5845-5856; https://doi.org/10.3390/s8095845
Received: 21 August 2008 / Revised: 22 September 2008 / Accepted: 23 September 2008 / Published: 24 September 2008
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 7751 | PDF Full-text (1553 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Polyimide has been widely applied to neural prosthetic devices, such as the retinal implants, due to its well-known biocompatibility and ability to be micropatterned. However, planar films of polyimide that are typically employed show a limited ability in reducing the distance between electrodes [...] Read more.
Polyimide has been widely applied to neural prosthetic devices, such as the retinal implants, due to its well-known biocompatibility and ability to be micropatterned. However, planar films of polyimide that are typically employed show a limited ability in reducing the distance between electrodes and targeting cell layers, which limits site resolution for effective multi-channel stimulation. In this paper, we report a newly designed device with a pillar structure that more effectively interfaces with the target. Electrode arrays were successfully fabricated and safely implanted inside the rabbit eye in suprachoroidal space. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) showed well-preserved pillar structures of the electrode without damage. Bipolar stimulation was applied through paired sites (6:1) and the neural responses were successfully recorded from several regions in the visual cortex. Electrically evoked cortical potential by the pillar electrode array stimulation were compared to visual evoked potential under full-field light stimulation. Full article
Open AccessArticle
A Voltammetric Biosensor Based on Glassy Carbon Electrodes Modified with Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes/Hemoglobin for Detection of Acrylamide in Water Extracts from Potato Crisps
Sensors 2008, 8(9), 5832-5844; https://doi.org/10.3390/s8095832
Received: 1 August 2008 / Revised: 12 September 2008 / Accepted: 18 September 2008 / Published: 23 September 2008
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 6558 | PDF Full-text (200 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The presence of toxic acrylamide in a wide range of food products such as potato crisps, French fries or bread has been confirmed by Swedish scientists from Stockholm University. The neurotoxicity, possible carcinogenicity of this compound and its metabolites compels us to control [...] Read more.
The presence of toxic acrylamide in a wide range of food products such as potato crisps, French fries or bread has been confirmed by Swedish scientists from Stockholm University. The neurotoxicity, possible carcinogenicity of this compound and its metabolites compels us to control them by quantitative and qualitative assays. Acrylamide forms adduct with hemoglobin (Hb) as a result of the reaction the -NH2 group of the Nterminal valine with acrylamide. In this work we present the use of glassy carbon electrodes coated with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and Hb for voltammetric detection of acrylamide in water solutions. The electrodes presented a very low detection limit (1.0×10-9 M). The validation made in the matrix obtained by water extraction of potato crisps showed that the electrodes presented are suitable for the direct determination of acrylamide in food samples. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Remote Water Temperature Measurements Based on Brillouin Scattering with a Frequency Doubled Pulsed Yb:doped Fiber Amplifier
Sensors 2008, 8(9), 5820-5831; https://doi.org/10.3390/s8095820
Received: 14 August 2008 / Revised: 4 September 2008 / Accepted: 17 September 2008 / Published: 22 September 2008
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 9042 | PDF Full-text (1222 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Temperature profiles of the ocean are of interest for weather forecasts, climate studies and oceanography in general. Currently, mostly in situ techniques such as fixed buoys or bathythermographs deliver oceanic temperature profiles. A LIDAR method based on Brillouin scattering is an attractive alternative [...] Read more.
Temperature profiles of the ocean are of interest for weather forecasts, climate studies and oceanography in general. Currently, mostly in situ techniques such as fixed buoys or bathythermographs deliver oceanic temperature profiles. A LIDAR method based on Brillouin scattering is an attractive alternative for remote sensing of such water temperature profiles. It makes it possible to deliver cost-effective on-line data covering an extended region of the ocean. The temperature measurement is based on spontaneous Brillouin scattering in water. In this contribution, we present the first water temperature measurements using a Yb:doped pulsed fiber amplifier. The fiber amplifier is a custom designed device which can be operated in a vibrational environment while emitting narrow bandwidth laser pulses. The device shows promising performance and demonstrates the feasibility of this approach. Furthermore, the current status of the receiver is briefly discussed; it is based on an excited state Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ocean Remote Sensing)
Open AccessArticle
Voltammetric Detection of Urea on an Ag-Modified Zeolite-Expanded Graphite-Epoxy Composite Electrode
Sensors 2008, 8(9), 5806-5819; https://doi.org/10.3390/s8095806
Received: 23 August 2008 / Revised: 13 September 2008 / Accepted: 18 September 2008 / Published: 22 September 2008
Cited by 33 | Viewed by 5965 | PDF Full-text (454 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, a modified expanded graphite composite electrode based on natural zeolitic volcanic tuff modified with silver (EG-Ag-Z-Epoxy) was developed. Cyclic voltammetry measurements revealed a reasonably fast electron transfer and a good stability of the electrode in 0.1 M NaOH supporting electrolyte. [...] Read more.
In this paper, a modified expanded graphite composite electrode based on natural zeolitic volcanic tuff modified with silver (EG-Ag-Z-Epoxy) was developed. Cyclic voltammetry measurements revealed a reasonably fast electron transfer and a good stability of the electrode in 0.1 M NaOH supporting electrolyte. This modified electrode exhibited moderate electrocatalytic effect towards urea oxidation, allowing its determination in aqueous solution. The linear dependence of the current versus urea concentration was reached using square-wave voltammetry in the concentrations range of urea between 0.2 to 1.4 mM, with a relatively low limit of detection of 0.05 mM. A moderate enhancement of electroanalytical sensitivity for the determination of urea at EG-Ag-Z-Epoxy electrode was reached by applying a chemical preconcentration step prior to voltammetric/amperometric quantification. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Electrochemical Preparation of a Molecularly Imprinted Polypyrrole-modified Pencil Graphite Electrode for Determination of Ascorbic Acid
Sensors 2008, 8(9), 5792-5805; https://doi.org/10.3390/s8095792
Received: 10 August 2008 / Revised: 30 August 2008 / Accepted: 12 September 2008 / Published: 18 September 2008
Cited by 102 | Viewed by 7323 | PDF Full-text (136 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) polypyrrole (PPy)-based film was fabricated for the determination of ascorbic acid. The film was prepared by incorporation of a template molecule (ascorbic acid) during the electropolymerization of pyrrole onto a pencil graphite electrode (PGE) in aqueous solution using [...] Read more.
A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) polypyrrole (PPy)-based film was fabricated for the determination of ascorbic acid. The film was prepared by incorporation of a template molecule (ascorbic acid) during the electropolymerization of pyrrole onto a pencil graphite electrode (PGE) in aqueous solution using a cyclic voltammetry method. The performance of the imprinted and non-imprinted (NIP) films was evaluated by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The effect of pH, monomer and template concentrations, electropolymerization cycles and interferents on the performance of the MIP electrode was investigated and optimized. The molecularly imprinted film exhibited a high selectivity and sensitivity toward ascorbic acid. The DPV peak current showed a linear dependence on the ascorbic acid concentration and a linear calibration curve was obtained in the range of 0.25 to 7.0 mM of ascorbic acid with a correlation coefficient of 0.9946. The detection limit (3σ) was determined as 7.4x10-5 M (S/N=3). The molecularly-imprinted polypyrrole-modified pencil graphite electrode showed a stable and reproducible response, without any influence of interferents commonly existing in pharmaceutical samples. The proposed method is simple and quick. The PPy electrodes have a low response time, good mechanical stability and are disposable simple to construct. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Use of Fe3O4 Nanoparticles for Enhancement of Biosensor Response to the Herbicide 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid
Sensors 2008, 8(9), 5775-5791; https://doi.org/10.3390/s8095775
Received: 29 July 2008 / Revised: 30 August 2008 / Accepted: 10 September 2008 / Published: 18 September 2008
Cited by 44 | Viewed by 9342 | PDF Full-text (2469 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Magnetic nanoparticles of Fe3O4 were synthesized and characterized using transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The Fe3O4 nanoparticles were found to have an average diameter of 5.48 ±1.37 nm. An electrochemical biosensor based on immobilized alkaline phosphatase [...] Read more.
Magnetic nanoparticles of Fe3O4 were synthesized and characterized using transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The Fe3O4 nanoparticles were found to have an average diameter of 5.48 ±1.37 nm. An electrochemical biosensor based on immobilized alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and Fe3O4 nanoparticles was studied. The amperometric biosensor was based on the reaction of ALP with the substrate ascorbic acid 2-phosphate (AA2P). The incorporation of the Fe3O4 nanoparticles together with ALP into a sol gel/chitosan biosensor membrane has led to the enhancement of the biosensor response, with an improved linear response range to the substrate AA2P (5-120 μM) and increased sensitivity. Using the inhibition property of the ALP, the biosensor was applied to the determination of the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). The use of Fe3O4 nanoparticles gives a two-fold improvement in the sensitivity towards 2,4-D, with a linear response range of 0.5-30 μgL-1. Exposure of the biosensor to other toxicants such as heavy metals demonstrated only slight interference from metals such as Hg2+, Cu2+, Ag2+ and Pb2+. The biosensor was shown to be useful for the determination of the herbicide 2, 4-D because good recovery of 95-100 percent was obtained, even though the analysis was performed in water samples with a complex matrix. Furthermore, the results from the analysis of 2,4-D in water samples using the biosensor correlated well with a HPLC method. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Electrical Characterization of Microelectromechanical Silicon Carbide Resonators
Sensors 2008, 8(9), 5759-5774; https://doi.org/10.3390/s8095759
Received: 14 July 2008 / Revised: 10 September 2008 / Accepted: 12 September 2008 / Published: 17 September 2008
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 7075 | PDF Full-text (724 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This manuscript describes the findings of a study to investigate the performance of SiC MEMS resonators with respect to resonant frequency and quality factor under a variety of testing conditions, including various ambient pressures, AC drive voltages, bias potentials and temperatures. The sample [...] Read more.
This manuscript describes the findings of a study to investigate the performance of SiC MEMS resonators with respect to resonant frequency and quality factor under a variety of testing conditions, including various ambient pressures, AC drive voltages, bias potentials and temperatures. The sample set included both single-crystal and polycrystalline 3C-SiC lateral resonators. The experimental results show that operation at reduced pressures increases the resonant frequency as damping due to the gas-rarefaction effect becomes significant. Both DC bias and AC drive voltages result in nonlinearities, but the AC drive voltage is more sensitive to noise. The AC voltage has a voltage coefficient of 1~4ppm/V at a DC bias of 40V. The coefficient of DC bias is about -11ppm/V to - 21ppm/V for poly-SiC, which is more than a factor of two better than a similarly designed polysilicon resonator (-54 ppm/V). The effective stiffness of the resonator decreases (softens) as the bias potential is increased, but increases (hardens) as drive voltage increase when scan is from low to high frequency. The resonant frequency decreases slightly with increasing temperature, exhibiting a temperature coefficient of -22 ppm/oC, between 22oC and 60oC. The thermal expansion mismatch between the SiC device and the Si substrate could be a reason that thermal coefficient for these SiC resonators is about twofold higher than similar polysilicon resonators. However, the Qs appear to exhibit no temperature dependence in this range. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Value Benefit Analysis Software and Its Application in Bolu-Lake Abant Natural Park
Sensors 2008, 8(9), 5745-5758; https://doi.org/10.3390/s8095745
Received: 12 August 2008 / Revised: 1 September 2008 / Accepted: 5 September 2008 / Published: 17 September 2008
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 6831 | PDF Full-text (370 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Value benefit analysis (VBA) is a psychometric instrument for finding the best compromise in forestry multiple-use planning, when the multiple objectives cannot be expressed in the same physical or monetary unit. It insures a systematic assessment of the consequences of proposed alternatives and [...] Read more.
Value benefit analysis (VBA) is a psychometric instrument for finding the best compromise in forestry multiple-use planning, when the multiple objectives cannot be expressed in the same physical or monetary unit. It insures a systematic assessment of the consequences of proposed alternatives and thoroughly documents the decision process. The method leads to a ranking of alternatives based upon weighting of the objectives and evaluation of the contribution of each alternative to these objectives. The use of the method is illustrated with hypothetical data about Bolu-Lake Abant Natural Park (BLANP). In this study, in addition, computer software controlling the confidence was created. This software puts into practice the method proposed by Churchman and Ackoff, and determines the significance of the alternatives quickly and accurately. Full article
Open AccessReview
Thermographic Phosphors for High Temperature Measurements: Principles, Current State of the Art and Recent Applications
Sensors 2008, 8(9), 5673-5744; https://doi.org/10.3390/s8095673
Received: 25 July 2008 / Revised: 1 September 2008 / Accepted: 5 September 2008 / Published: 15 September 2008
Cited by 190 | Viewed by 10307 | PDF Full-text (2728 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper reviews the state of phosphor thermometry, focusing on developments in the past 15 years. The fundamental principles and theory are presented, and the various spectral and temporal modes, including the lifetime decay, rise time and intensity ratio, are discussed. The entire [...] Read more.
This paper reviews the state of phosphor thermometry, focusing on developments in the past 15 years. The fundamental principles and theory are presented, and the various spectral and temporal modes, including the lifetime decay, rise time and intensity ratio, are discussed. The entire phosphor measurement system, including relative advantages to conventional methods, choice of phosphors, bonding techniques, excitation sources and emission detection, is reviewed. Special attention is given to issues that may arise at high temperatures. A number of recent developments and applications are surveyed, with examples including: measurements in engines, hypersonic wind tunnel experiments, pyrolysis studies and droplet/spray/gas temperature determination. They show the technique is flexible and successful in measuring temperatures where conventional methods may prove to be unsuitable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aerospace Sensor Systems)
Open AccessArticle
An Immunosensing System Using Stilbene Glycoside as a Fluorogenic Substrate for an Enzymatic Reaction Model
Sensors 2008, 8(9), 5661-5672; https://doi.org/10.3390/s8095661
Received: 21 July 2008 / Revised: 4 September 2008 / Accepted: 11 September 2008 / Published: 15 September 2008
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 7590 | PDF Full-text (104 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A natural product, stilbene glycoside (2,3,5,4’-tetrahydroxydiphenylethylene-2-O-glucoside, TBG), has been evaluated for the first time as a potential substrate for horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-catalyzed fluorogenic reactions. The properties of TBG as a fluorogenic substrate for HRP and its application in a fluorometric enzyme-linked immunosensing system [...] Read more.
A natural product, stilbene glycoside (2,3,5,4’-tetrahydroxydiphenylethylene-2-O-glucoside, TBG), has been evaluated for the first time as a potential substrate for horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-catalyzed fluorogenic reactions. The properties of TBG as a fluorogenic substrate for HRP and its application in a fluorometric enzyme-linked immunosensing system were compared with commercially available substrates such as p-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid (pHPPA), chavicol and Amplex red using Brucella melitensis antibody (BrAb) as a model analyte. The immunosensing body based on HRP-BrAb was constructed by dispersing graphite, BrAg and paraffin wax at room temperature. In a competitive immunoassay procedure, the BrAb competed with HRP-BrAb to react with the immobilized BrAg. In the enzymatic reaction, the binding HRP-BrAb on the sensing body surface can catalyze the polymerization reaction of TBG by H2O2 forming fluorescent dimers and causing an increase in fluorescence intensity. TBG showed comparable ability for HRP detection and its enzyme-linked immunosensing reaction system, in a linear detection ranging of 3.5´10-8~7.6´10-6g/L and with a detection limit of 1.7´10-9 g/L. The immobilized biocomposite surface could be regenerated with excellent reproducibility (RSD=3.8%) by simply polishing with an alumina paper. The proposed immunosensing system has been used to determine the BrAb in rabbit serum samples with satisfactory results. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Electrochemical Behaviors of Methylene Blue on DNA Modified Electrode and Its Application to the Detection of PCR Product from NOS Sequence
Sensors 2008, 8(9), 5649-5660; https://doi.org/10.3390/s8095649
Received: 17 July 2008 / Revised: 1 September 2008 / Accepted: 9 September 2008 / Published: 15 September 2008
Cited by 50 | Viewed by 7643 | PDF Full-text (117 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An electrochemical DNA biosensor for the detection of NOS gene sequences from genetically modified organisms (GMOs) is presented in this paper. Single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) was covalently attached through the carboxylate ester formed by the 3’- hydroxy end of the DNA with the carboxyl [...] Read more.
An electrochemical DNA biosensor for the detection of NOS gene sequences from genetically modified organisms (GMOs) is presented in this paper. Single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) was covalently attached through the carboxylate ester formed by the 3’- hydroxy end of the DNA with the carboxyl of a mercaptoacetic acid self-assembled monolayer-modified gold electrode using N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) and N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N’-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) as linkers. The electrochemical behavior of methylene blue (MB) on the ssDNA and dsDNA modified gold electrode were carefully studied. Compared with ssDNA/Au electrode, an increase of redox peak current of MB on dsDNA/Au electrode was found, which could be further used for monitoring the recognition of DNA hybridization. Based on this result, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) product of the common inserts NOS terminator from real GMOs samples was detected successfully. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Immobilization of the Enzyme Glucose Oxidase on Both Bulk and Porous SiO2 Surfaces
Sensors 2008, 8(9), 5637-5648; https://doi.org/10.3390/s8095637
Received: 6 August 2008 / Revised: 26 August 2008 / Accepted: 10 September 2008 / Published: 15 September 2008
Cited by 34 | Viewed by 6463 | PDF Full-text (349 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Silicon dioxide surfaces, both bulk and porous, were used to anchor the enzyme glucose oxidase. The immobilization protocol was optimized and the samples characterized using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Energy Dispersive X-rays coupled to scanning electron microscopy and enzymatic activity measurements. We show that [...] Read more.
Silicon dioxide surfaces, both bulk and porous, were used to anchor the enzyme glucose oxidase. The immobilization protocol was optimized and the samples characterized using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Energy Dispersive X-rays coupled to scanning electron microscopy and enzymatic activity measurements. We show that a uniform layer was obtained by activating the oxide before immobilization. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy measurements carried out on bulk oxide showed that the silicon substrate signal was fully screened after the enzyme deposition showing the absence of uncovered surface regions. The enzyme presence was detected monitoring both the C 1s and N 1s signals. Finally, enzymatic activity measurements confirmed that the glucose oxidase activity was preserved after immobilization and maintained after three months of shelf life if the sample was properly stored. The importance of using porous silicon oxide to maximize the surface area was also evidenced. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Amperometric Sensor for Detection of Chloride Ions
Sensors 2008, 8(9), 5619-5636; https://doi.org/10.3390/s8095619
Received: 31 July 2008 / Revised: 9 September 2008 / Accepted: 11 September 2008 / Published: 15 September 2008
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 7898 | PDF Full-text (3647 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Chloride ion sensing is important in many fields such as clinical diagnosis, environmental monitoring and industrial applications. We have measured chloride ions at a carbon paste electrode (CPE) and at a CPE modified with solid AgNO3, a solution of AgNO3 [...] Read more.
Chloride ion sensing is important in many fields such as clinical diagnosis, environmental monitoring and industrial applications. We have measured chloride ions at a carbon paste electrode (CPE) and at a CPE modified with solid AgNO3, a solution of AgNO3 and/or solid silver particles. Detection limits (3 S/N) for chloride ions were 100 μM, 100 μM and 10 μM for solid AgNO3, solution of AgNO3 and/or solid silver particles, respectively. The CPE modified with silver particles is the most sensitive to the presence chloride ions. After that we approached to the miniaturization of the whole electrochemical instrument. Measurements were carried out on miniaturized instrument consisting of a potentiostat with dimensions 35 × 166 × 125 mm, screen printed electrodes, a peristaltic pump and a PC with control software. Under the most suitable experimental conditions (Britton-Robinson buffer, pH 1.8 and working electrode potential 550 mV) we estimated the limit of detection (3 S/N) as 500 nM. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Quantitative Hyperspectral Reflectance Imaging
Sensors 2008, 8(9), 5576-5618; https://doi.org/10.3390/s8095576
Received: 31 July 2008 / Revised: 2 September 2008 / Accepted: 9 September 2008 / Published: 11 September 2008
Cited by 53 | Viewed by 10343 | PDF Full-text (3712 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hyperspectral imaging is a non-destructive optical analysis technique that can for instance be used to obtain information from cultural heritage objects unavailable with conventional colour or multi-spectral photography. This technique can be used to distinguish and recognize materials, to enhance the visibility of [...] Read more.
Hyperspectral imaging is a non-destructive optical analysis technique that can for instance be used to obtain information from cultural heritage objects unavailable with conventional colour or multi-spectral photography. This technique can be used to distinguish and recognize materials, to enhance the visibility of faint or obscured features, to detect signs of degradation and study the effect of environmental conditions on the object. We describe the basic concept, working principles, construction and performance of a laboratory instrument specifically developed for the analysis of historical documents. The instrument measures calibrated spectral reflectance images at 70 wavelengths ranging from 365 to 1100 nm (near-ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared). By using a wavelength tunable narrow-bandwidth light-source, the light energy used to illuminate the measured object is minimal, so that any light-induced degradation can be excluded. Basic analysis of the hyperspectral data includes a qualitative comparison of the spectral images and the extraction of quantitative data such as mean spectral reflectance curves and statistical information from user-defined regions-of-interest. More sophisticated mathematical feature extraction and classification techniques can be used to map areas on the document, where different types of ink had been applied or where one ink shows various degrees of degradation. The developed quantitative hyperspectral imager is currently in use by the Nationaal Archief (National Archives of The Netherlands) to study degradation effects of artificial samples and original documents, exposed in their permanent exhibition area or stored in their deposit rooms. Full article
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