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Article

The Influence of Antenna Height on the Measurement of Collective Variables Using an Ultra-Wide Band Based Local Positioning System in Team Sports

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Faculty of Sports Sciences, University of Murcia, San Javier, 30100 Murcia, Spain
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BIOVETMED & SPORTSCI Research Group, Department of Physical activity and Sport, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Murcia, San Javier, 30100 Murcia, Spain
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Society, Sports and Physical Exercise Research Group (GIKAFIT), Department of Physical Education and Sport, Faculty of Education and Sport, University of Basque Country (UPV-EHU), 01007 Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain
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Associate Graduate Programme in Physical Education, Department of Physical Education, Federal University of Paraíba, João Pessoa, Paraíba 58051-900, Brazil
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Escola Superior Desporto e Lazer, Instituto Politécnico de Viana do Castelo, Rua Escola Industrial e Comercial de Nun’Álvares, 4900-347 Viana do Castelo, Portugal
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Instituto de Telecomunicações, Delegação da Covilhã, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal
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Research Centre in Sports Sciences, Health Sciences and Human Development, CIDESD, University Institute of Maia, ISMAI, 4475-690 Maia, Portugal
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Department of Physical Education and Sport, University of Basque Country (UPV-EHU), Lasarte 71, 01007 Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Ahmed Toaha Mobashsher and Antonio Lázaro
Sensors 2021, 21(7), 2424; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21072424
Received: 20 February 2021 / Revised: 25 March 2021 / Accepted: 29 March 2021 / Published: 1 April 2021
Ultra-wide band (UWB) based local positioning systems (LPS) are based on devices and a portable antenna set. The optimal installation height of the antennae is crucial to ensure data accuracy. Collective variables are metrics that consider at least two pairs of coordinates, which may lead to lower precision than an individual one. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the influence of antenna height with collective metrics using a UWB (i.e., IMU; WIMU PRO™, RealTrack Systems, Almeria, Spain) based LPS. Data acquisition was carried out in a basketball court measuring 28 × 15 m. Five devices were used; one of which was carried by a healthy and well-trained athlete (age: 38 years, mass: 76.34 kg, height 1.70 m), while each of the remaining four was positioned on a tripod in one of the four corners of the court. Four kinds of variables were extracted: (1) static distances, (2) dynamic distances, (3) static areas and (4) dynamic areas in all antenna installation modes of 0.15, 1.30 and 2.00 m. The results showed that the antenna of 1.30 m provided better accuracy for all measures (% difference range from −0.94 to 1.17%) followed by the antenna of 2.00 m (% difference range from −2.50 to 2.15%), with the antenna of 0.15 m providing the worst accuracy level (% difference range from −1.05 to 3.28%). Overall, the measurements of distance metrics showed greater accuracy than area metrics (distance % difference range from −0.85 to 2.81% and area % difference range from −2.50 to 3.28). In conclusion, the height of the antennae in basketball courts should be similar to the height at which the devices are attached to a player’s upper back. However, as the precision is sensitive to the magnitude of the measure, further studies should assess the effects of the relative height of antennae in team sports with greater playing spaces. View Full-Text
Keywords: EPTS; athlete tracking; position; team behavior; sport EPTS; athlete tracking; position; team behavior; sport
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pino-Ortega, J.; Arcos, A.L.; Gantois, P.; Clemente, F.M.; Nakamura, F.Y.; Rico-González, M. The Influence of Antenna Height on the Measurement of Collective Variables Using an Ultra-Wide Band Based Local Positioning System in Team Sports. Sensors 2021, 21, 2424. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21072424

AMA Style

Pino-Ortega J, Arcos AL, Gantois P, Clemente FM, Nakamura FY, Rico-González M. The Influence of Antenna Height on the Measurement of Collective Variables Using an Ultra-Wide Band Based Local Positioning System in Team Sports. Sensors. 2021; 21(7):2424. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21072424

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pino-Ortega, José, Asier L. Arcos, Petrus Gantois, Filipe M. Clemente, Fabio Y. Nakamura, and Markel Rico-González. 2021. "The Influence of Antenna Height on the Measurement of Collective Variables Using an Ultra-Wide Band Based Local Positioning System in Team Sports" Sensors 21, no. 7: 2424. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21072424

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